Sex and Gender and the Cognitive explanation.

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Sex
Male of Female; What you are born as; biological
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Gender
Being Masculine or Feminine
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Androgyny
Having both Masculine and Feminine characteristics.
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The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BRSI)
The BSRI was piloted on over 1000 students and results corresponded to the samples own description of their gender identity. Conclusion: Men typically score higher on Masculine traits and Women on Feminine However many were more Androgynous.
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Evaluation of BRSI
SELF-REPORT MEASURE = Socially desirable answers, Lacks Validity. CULTURALLY BIASED = Different cultures have different views on traits. OUTDATED= Traits may have changed since 1974.
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Imperato - McGinley et al The Batista Boys
Despite being raised as girls, the boys had no problems adopting their new gender identity. CONCLUSION = The study shows sex and gender are distinct concepts. Whilst the boys sex had not changed their gender had. Gender is Flexible.
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Evaluation of Batista Boys.
NOT REPRESENTATIVE= Sample of only 18 boys. CULTURAL NORMS = Dominican republic is a patriachal society and males are seen as superior. RETROSPECTIVE DATA = They cannot reliably say that the boys had fully adopted their female role before puberty.
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COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER.
The Cognitive approach is concerned with how the child understands Gender. Therefore to understand how gender develops we must investigate how a child's thinking matures and becomes more complex as it gets older.
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Kohlberg's Gender Identity Stage (2-3 yrs)
Children can correctly label (identify) their own and others sex.
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Kohlberg's Gender Stability Stage (3 - 4 yrs)
Children now understand that gender is stable (stays the same over time) However lack the understanding that it stays the same across situations.
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Kohlberg's Gender Consistency Stage (4 - 7 yrs)
Children now have a full understanding of gender ; they know that it stays the same over time and situation despite superficial stages in appearance.
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Damon (1977)
Children's understanding of gender-appropriate behavior changes with age and reflects their level of cognitive development.
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Gender Schema Theory
A gender schema is a unit of knowledge consisting of information such as appropriate behaviours, characteristics, occupations and roles for males and females.
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Martin and Helverson (1983)
Recall of gender consistent pictures was good whereas recall of gender inconsistent pictures was poor and often distorted. CONCLUSION: Children use schemas to make sense of the world and will reorganise information that does not fit with their schema
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Strengths of the Cognitive explanation
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE = Damon & Martin and Helverson. KOHLBERGS STAGES APPEAR TO BE UNIVERSAL. COMBINES APPROACHES= Cog - changes in intelligence/understanding. Bio - Changes as children Mature SLT - Children seek out role models.
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Limitations of the Cognitive Explanations
Studies tend to be LAB EXPERIMENTS= Artificial, Lack ecological Validity. Descriptive NOT explanatory = Cognitive theories describe the processes of gender development but do not explain WHY they occur.
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Comparisons and Criticisms from other Approaches.
BIOLOGICAL - Agree its maturational but disagree that children are so active in the process. PSYCHODYNAMIC = Focus too much on Conscious mental processes and neglects unconscious mental processes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Being Masculine or Feminine

Back

Gender

Card 3

Front

Having both Masculine and Feminine characteristics.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The BSRI was piloted on over 1000 students and results corresponded to the samples own description of their gender identity. Conclusion: Men typically score higher on Masculine traits and Women on Feminine However many were more Androgynous.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

SELF-REPORT MEASURE = Socially desirable answers, Lacks Validity. CULTURALLY BIASED = Different cultures have different views on traits. OUTDATED= Traits may have changed since 1974.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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