PSYA4 - Schizophrenia

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Beck et al (1962)
Reported 54% concordance rate between experienced practitioners' diagnoses when assessing 153 patients.
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Söderberg et al (2005)
Reported 81% concordance rate using DSM-IV-TR, the most up-to-date form of the DSM classification system.
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Nilsson et al (2000)
Found 60% concordance rate between practitioners using the ICD classification system, implying DCM is more reliable.
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Hollis (2000)
Studied 93 cases of early onset schizophrenia, applying DSM classification diagnoses to patient case notes. Findings indicate diagnosis had high level of stability, suggesting diagnoses are to a large extent valid.
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Torrey et al (1994)
Reviewed evidence from twin studies, finding that if one MZ twin develops schizophrenia, there is a 28% chance the other twin will too.
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Gottesman and Shields (1976)
Reviewed 5 twin studies and reported a concordance rate of 75-91% for MZ twins with severe forms of schizophrenia.
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Parmas et al (1993)
Conducted longitudinal family study of schizophrenia, finding 16% of children whose mothers have schizophrenia developed the disorder, compared to 2% of children of non-schizophrenic mothers.
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Randrup and Munkvad (1966)
Created schizophrenic-like behaviour in rats by giving them amphetamines (activate dopamine production) and reversed effects by giving neuroleptic drugs (inhibit dopamine release).
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Iversen (1979)
Reported post-mortems on people who had had schizophrenia found excess dopamine in the lambic system.
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Javitt et al (2000)
Found glycine (glutamate receptor agonist) reverses phencyclidine hydrochloride-induced psychosis (closely resembles sz), and brought about improvements in people with sz.
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Bentall et al (1991)
Found schizophrenics struggled to identify words belonging to a certain category, such as birds, that they had read earlier, created themselves or had not seen before, supporting Frith's theory.
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Leff (1976)
Reported a relapse rate of 51% for people with sz returning to homes with high rates of expressed emotions, compared to 13% for those returning to homes with low rates of expressed emotion.
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Haley (1981)
Found unclear, confusing and conflicting communication patterns in families of individuals with sz - suggests these expressed emotions contribute to development and persistence of sz.
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Davis et al (1989)
Performed meta-analysis of over 100 studies comparing antipsychotics with placebos, finding over 70% of sufferers treated with antipsychotics improving in condition after 6 weeks, compared to fewer than 25% improving with placebos.
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Schooler et al (2005)
Compared effectiveness of 1st- and 2nd-gen antipsychotics. 75% of patients experienced at least a 20% reduction in symptoms. However, 55% of those receiving 1st-gen psychotics and 42% of those receiving 2nd-gen psychotics experienced a relapse.
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Tharyan and Adams (2005)
Reviewed 26 studies of ECT treatment for sz, concluding it to be fairly effective in the short term - better than no treatment, but not as good as drugs.
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Fisk (1997)
Reviewing clinical literature, concluded ECT had success rate of 60-80%, but is only effective against certain categories of sz, and more treatments (20-30) are needed than with other disorders.
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Tarrier (2005)
Reviewed 20 controlled trials of CBT using 739 patients, finding persistent evidence of reduced symptoms, especially positive ones, lower relapse rates & speedier recovery for acutely ill patients. However, only short-term.
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Trower et al (2004)
Conducted controlled trial of CBT, finding it did not reduce intensity of hallucinations, but made them seem less of a threat by persuading sufferers they 'outranked' the voices.
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Knapp et al (1994)
Found problem-orientated, home-based psychotherapy cost-effective, producing 'mildly encouraging' results over a 20-month period.
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Card 2

Front

Reported 81% concordance rate using DSM-IV-TR, the most up-to-date form of the DSM classification system.

Back

Söderberg et al (2005)

Card 3

Front

Found 60% concordance rate between practitioners using the ICD classification system, implying DCM is more reliable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Studied 93 cases of early onset schizophrenia, applying DSM classification diagnoses to patient case notes. Findings indicate diagnosis had high level of stability, suggesting diagnoses are to a large extent valid.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reviewed evidence from twin studies, finding that if one MZ twin develops schizophrenia, there is a 28% chance the other twin will too.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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