PSYA3 - Key Studies in Aggression

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  • Created by: SVO96
  • Created on: 24-02-14 15:05
Bandura
SLT: Aggression is learnt through observation and imitation - Bobo dolls
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Phillips
SLT is evident in adults as well as children - US homocide rates increased in the week following a boxing match on TV.
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!Kung San children
SLT can explain social differences in aggression - no aggressive models or reinforcement so less motivation to behave aggressively
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Zimbardo - Stanford Prison Experiment
DEINDIVIDUATION - Aggression of the guards towards prisoners results from deindividuation
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Zimbardo - Interviews
DEINDIVIDUATION - Lab coats group shocked both obnoxious and pleasant equally
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Rehm et al.
DEINDIVIDUATION - Aggression in handball: girls - no differences in groups, boys - uniformed teams more aggressive
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Watson
DEINDIVIDUATION - warriors in 23 cultures: those whose appearance was altered, e.g. paints, masks, etc. were more aggressive
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Harer and Steffensmeier
IMPORTATION MODEL - black inmates had higher rates of violence and lower rates of drug/alcohol issues than white inmates. Same is true in outside world
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Poole and Regoli
IMPORTATION MODEL - pre-institutional violence was best predictor of inmate aggression for juvenile offenders
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DeLisi
IMPORTATION MODEL - no correlation between previous gang membership and violence once in prison
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Mann et al.
SEROTONIN - drugs which reduced serotonin increased hostility and aggression in males
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Scerbo and Raine
SEROTONIN - meta-analysis supports low level of serotonin leading to aggression
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Raleigh et al.
SEROTONIN - vermet monkeys: those with diets high in tryptophan (increase serotonin) had lower levels of aggression
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Lavine
DOPAMINE - giving amphetamines (increase dopamine) increases aggression
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Buitelaar
DOPAMINE - giving anti-psychotics (reduce dopamine) reduced aggression in violent delinquents
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Dabbs et al.
TESTOSTERONE - salivary testosterone levels could differentiate between violent and non-violent
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Lindman et al.
TESTOSTERONE - aggressive behaviour in drunk males positively correlated with testosterone levels
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Wagner et al.
TESTOSTERONE - castrated male mice showed decreased aggression, which then increased when given testosterone
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Virkunnen
CORTISOL - low levels of cortisol in habitual violent offenders
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Tennes and Kreye
CORTISOL - low levels of cortisol in violent schoolchildren
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Rutter et al.
TWIN STUDIES - concordance rates of criminality: DZ twins = 13-22%, MZ twins = 6-31%
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McGue et al.
TWIN STUDIES - measured aggression using a questionnaire and found a 0.30 correlation for DZ twins and a 0.47 correlation for MZ twins
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Hutchings and Mednick
ADOPTION STUDIES - studied 14000 adopted children and found a high proportion of boys with criminal convictions had biological parents with criminal convictions
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Brunner et al.
MAOA GENE - study of a Dutch family, many of whose male members were aggressive and had been involved in serious crimes. Found they had abnormally low levels of MAOA
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Capsi et al.
MAOA GENE - in a sample of children with low levels of MAOA, only those who had been maltreated displayed anti-soial behaviour
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Wilson and Daly
EVOLUTIONARY - motive behind most of murders in Detroit, 1972, was status. Victims and offenders were unemployed and unmarried young men
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Miller
EVOLUTIONARY - 55% of battered wives cited jealousy as reason for husband's behaviour
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Young
EVOLUTIONARY - asked students to describe their likely reactions to a jealousy-inducing scenario. Men: respond angrily, threaten their rival. Women: cry, pretend not to care, try to increase own attractiveness to regain male's attention
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Griskevicius et al.
EVOLUTIONARY - gave students scenario of same sex spilling drink on them and not apologising. Men's response: direct aggression Only ¼ of women would do so; most would just walk away
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Chagnon
GROUP DISPLAY (WAR) - Yanamamo tribe in the Amazon fight for access to women. Success in battles give the warriors a high status/ have more wives and children. Most young men who had killed were married and those who had never killed were not
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Lehmann and Feldman
GROUP DISPLAY (WAR) - if the more aggressive men are the ones who pass on their genes, an increasingly aggressive species should emerge. Two traits have emerged to support the statement that this has happened: belligerence and bravery
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Cialdini et al.
GROUP DISPLAY (SPORT) - after a university team had done well, students were more likely to wear university-branded clothing. Also used the pronoun "we" to describe successful outcomes
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Card 2

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SLT is evident in adults as well as children - US homocide rates increased in the week following a boxing match on TV.

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Phillips

Card 3

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SLT can explain social differences in aggression - no aggressive models or reinforcement so less motivation to behave aggressively

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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DEINDIVIDUATION - Aggression of the guards towards prisoners results from deindividuation

Back

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Card 5

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DEINDIVIDUATION - Lab coats group shocked both obnoxious and pleasant equally

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Preview of the back of card 5
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