PSYA3 Eating Behaviour

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Wardle et al: 16,000 adults, 21 European countries. High availability – high consumption e.g. Spain/Portugal (sunny) – high fruit production, high fruit in diet.
Oliver and Wardle: Cortisol: 73% of students said they are more likely to snack when stressed.
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Pica Indians suffered obesity, exposed to new diet (mainland America)
Gibson: Serotonin hypothesis: Chocolate has amino acids and tryptophan in it which causes an increase in serotonin to the brain, elevating mood short-term.
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Westcombe and Wardle: Those concerned with health said they’d buy low fat cheese & yoghurt and rated high fat ones as most unpleasant.
Macht and Dettmer: Apples and chocolate both increase mood but chocolate associated with guilty afterwards.
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Verplanken et al: Low self-esteem causes people to impulse buy and snack. People comfort eat due to SLT and conditioning.
Wansink et al: Sad films caused participants to eat more popcorn to elevate mood but comedies caused them to eat grapes to maintain mood.
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Davis: Young children, paediatric unit had innate preferences for healthy foods.
Roberts: We became behavioural carnivores in times of desperations and unavailability of plants.
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Campbell: 2 years, Oxford uni, Cornell uni and a Chinese uni: looked at lifestyle factors and disease. Most animal-based foods = most chronic disease. Least animal-based foods = less chronic disease.
Baylis: Two symmetrical lesions on the VMN of 8 male and 5 female rats, bodyweight was later compared to age matched controls. Rats with lesions on their VMN became obese. Therefore we can conclude that damage to the VMN can cause hyperphagia.
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Winn: Made lesions on the lateral nucleus of rats, some were larger lesions than others due to the amount of toxin injected. Those with small lesions had no change to eating behaviour, whereas those with larger leisions showed long term deficits in t
Cummings et al: 5/6 participants showed positive correlation between ghrelin, stomach emptiness and hunger.
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Marie et al: Genetically manipulated mice so didn’t produce Neuropeptide Y, when injected with it their feeding increased.
Herman and Polivy: Boundary model: Biopsychological explanation. Body has a set point, determined by our biology and we try to maintain this point. Restrained eaters have a cognitive food boundary, once overcome they just proceed to eat. Lowe-calor
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Redden: Need to pay attention to detail of their food for success, interesting and achievable.
Hiernan et al: Dissatisfaction with body shape at baseline, will be more successful.
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Ogden and Mills: Dieters need to hold a model of obesity that focuses on behaviour at the centre not a weight problem, they need to make it so food is not a reward.
Ogden: May fail as likely to result in more physical and psychological consequences than weight loss.
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Wegner et al: Theory of ironic mental processing: One group told not to think about white bear but ring bell if did, one told to think about white bear. Ones told not to rang bell more often.
Haldeman: Weight loss can be sustained but only with lifestyle change as well.
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Food and Mood project: Type of diet important, low-calorie can cause anxiety/depression = over eating.
Freud: Psychodynamic: Eating and sex symbolically related, refusal to eat represents refusal of sexuality (to grow up)
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Carter: 77 anorexics, 44% reported early childhood sexual abuse.
Bailer: High levels of serotonin in anorexics compared to healthy participants.
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Haye et al: Serotonin effective in preventing relapse of recovering patients.
Kaye et al: PET scans of 10 recovering and 12 healthy. Over-activity of dopamine in anorexic sample in area associated with rewards. Anorexics don’t associate food with reward, reward sensors distorted.
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Lindberg and Hjem: Association between premature birth and anorexia.
Eagles: Individuals with anorexia, more likely to be born in spring time.
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Holland et al: Concordance rate for anorexia is 55% in MZ and 7%in DZ twins. By studying both types of twins, reduced confounding effect of share environment.
Klump et al: Genetic contributed to Anorexia is between 50-80%
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Frisch: Critical fat hypothesis: 17% needed before menstruation begins, additional fat 22% needed to maintain regular ovulation.
Frisch and Barbien: Altering weight gain/loss is effective for controlling sexual maturation. More females than males, female delays reproduction until less competition.
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Pica Indians suffered obesity, exposed to new diet (mainland America)

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Gibson: Serotonin hypothesis: Chocolate has amino acids and tryptophan in it which causes an increase in serotonin to the brain, elevating mood short-term.

Card 3

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Westcombe and Wardle: Those concerned with health said they’d buy low fat cheese & yoghurt and rated high fat ones as most unpleasant.

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Verplanken et al: Low self-esteem causes people to impulse buy and snack. People comfort eat due to SLT and conditioning.

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Davis: Young children, paediatric unit had innate preferences for healthy foods.

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