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Weaknesses of the multi-store model
Ev. against rehersal; flashbulb memories. Clive Wearing; not unitary stores
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Outline the working memory model
Central executive; controls everything. VSS; visual information processing. Phonological loop; verbal and articulatory processing. All temp stores and limited capacity
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Strengths and weaknesses of WMM
ALL; limited capacity, temporary storage. C.E;modality free, but no evidence. VSS;not possible to use for 2 jobs. 2 different components can be used simultaneously.
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3 factors affecting EWT
Age, anxiety and misleading information
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Outline Brewer and Treyens study into schemas in EWT
Ps in office containing 61 items for 35secs. Some expected, some unusual (brick,skull) Items that weren't present were often recalled and unusual ones were too.
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Outline Loftus and Palmer's study into misleading info in EWT
Ps watched film of car accident. Asked speed of cars when; smashed/collided/bumped/hit/contacted. Speed estimates were higher for verb implying more severity.
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Outline Loftus' study into anxiety in EWT
Ps sat outside lab. Condition1; convo about equipment, man left covered in grease with a pen. Condition2; heated argument, man left bloody with knife. Recall was worse for condition 2 in a line up: weapon focus, more anxiety
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Outline Christianson and Hubinette's study into anxiety in EWT
Survey on 22 robberies, some victims, some witnesses. Found that anxiety increases accuracy; extreme stress=better recall. (same results after 15months)
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Compare evauation of Loftus' study and Chrstianson and Hubinette
C+H; high ecological validity, real life. Lacks internal validity, lack of control. Loftus; lacks ecological validity, higher internal validity, can recreate/more control
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Outline Gross and Hayne's study into age of EWT
Children 5-6 visited choc factory. Memory of events was tested 1 day and 6 months after. Condition1; children gave verbal report. Condition2; children drew events at same time as verbal report. Condition2 obtained 30% more info.
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Outline Poole and Lindsey's study into age of EWT
Children 3-8 watched science demo. Parents then read them a story combining demo info and novel. Children were questioned and young children couldn't extract post-event info like older could. Young children are also poor source monitors.
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Evaluate research into the accuracy of EWT
Real life=high ecological validity. Good practical applications. Ethics with children and causing anxiety. Individual differences affect results.
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4 instructions given in cognitive interview
Context reinstatement. Report everything. Changed perspective. Reverse order.E
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Evaluate the cognitive interview
Reduces anxiety of witness. No leading Qs. More accurate info. Too much info and some inaccurate. Time consuming.
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Define attachment
A close, emotional bond between a child and their primary care giver.
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Associated behaviours with attachment
Proximity seeking, separation anxiety, safe base, pleasure on reunion.
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At what age does attachment begin to occur
Around 8 months
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Characteristics of secure attachment
Distress on separation, joy on reunion. Readily explore within safe base. Stranger anxiety
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Characteristics of insecure avoidant
Indifferent on separation, avoids contact on reunion. Will explore. Low stranger anxiety.
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Characteristics of insecure resistant
Highly distressed on separation, seeks and rejects comfort on reuninion. Clingy, won't readily explore. High stranger anxiety.
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Strenghts of the strange situation
Generated further research, scientfic=control of variables. Standardised procedures and can be replicated.
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Weaknesses of the strange situation
Lacks ecological validity. Ethical issues and blame is on mother; judgemental. Lacks cultural valdity=developed in USA. Temprement of child is a factor e.g. childcare? used to being left.
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Outline Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg's meta-analysis
32 studies in 8 different countires. Mother-infant relationships using only SS. Secure was most common in all countires. Avoidant was next most common except for Japan and Israel where resistant was most common.
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Evaluate Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg's meta-analysis
2000 babies; large sample size, allows findings to be generalised. 27 studies in indiviualist, 5 in collectivist cultures; may not be representitive. 18 were carried out in USA, where SS was developed-may be suited for this culture.
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Procedures of Bowlby's 44 thieves study
Investigated long-term effects of maternal dep. Interviewed 44 teenage thieves and 44 teenagers on same protection program that hadn't yet committed a crime. Interviewed parents to find out about separation during critical period and how long for.
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Findings of Bowlby's 44 thieves study
More than half the thieves had been separated for longer than 6 months during their first 5 years. Of the control group (no crime) only 2 had the same separation. Concluded that anti-social behaviour was a result of maternal deprivation.
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Procedures and findings of Goldfarb's study of children in institutions
Studied 15 children who had been in institutions up to about 3 years old before being fostered. Compared these with those who had been forstered at around 6 months. Found that children adopted later were less emotionally secure, mature and smart.
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Procedures and findings of Spitz and Wolfe's study
100 psychologically normal children in long term hospital care. Most began to show signs of depression, however they quickly recovered if the hospitalization period was under 3 months
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Procedures and findings of Rutter's ERA study
111 institutionalised Romanian children assessed for physical and intellectual development. Found lower IQ, smaller, shorter and skinner. Children adopted into stable, loving families seemed to recover.
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Outline the case study of Genie
Was found to have mild retardation as a baby. Father locked her in bedroom and wasn't spoken to. She was found aged 13, couldn't stand straight, vocab of 20 words. Scored maturity of a 1 year old. Intense rehab effort-limited success.
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Outline the Czech twins case study
Locked in a cellar and beaten. Found aged 7, had no language. Adopted age 9 and lovingly cared for; developmentally normal by 14, made almost full recovery. Disproved Bowlby, however could attach to each other.
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Key assumptions of the learning theory
We are born tabala rasa, all attachments are learnt. We attach due to association between PCG and pleasure from no longer being hungry. Or because behaviours that are rewarded are repeated.
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Learning theory- classical conditioning
Learning through association: UCS(milk) -> UCR(pleasure) UCS+CS(mother+milk) -> UCR(pleasure) CS(mother) -> CR(pleasure)
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Learning theory- operant conditioning
Learning from consequences: +ve reinforcements-behaviour producing a reward is likely to be repeated. Punishment: behaviour with unpleasant outcome isn't repeated. -ve reinforcements: Behaviour that stops something unpleasant will be repeated.
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Evidence against the learning theory
Harlow's monkey's: contradicts theory because they went to the cloth mother when scared, not the one with food. Suggests attachments are formed through comfort not food.
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Evaluation of the learning theory
Things are learnt through conditioning. There's evidence that attachments aren't just made due to food, sensitivity is important too.
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Key assumptions of the evolutionary theory
Attachment is innate and needed for survival. Social releasers;gain attention. Monotropy;special relationship (mother) Internal working model;provides template for future relationships. Critical period; no attachment in 2-3 years they never will
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Evaluation of the evolutionary theory
Supportive evidence and practical applications e.g. in hospitals mothers and babies are no longer separated at birth. Bowlby mostly ignored the importance of other relationships; father, siblings etc. Questions about critical period.
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Characteristics of high quality daycare
Low child to staff ratio-allows attachments to form; caregivers with a specialised training in childcare; constant caregivers-stable attachment figures; discuss needs before and during care-better understanding=better attachments, supported by PDD
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Outine procedures and findings of the EPPE project
3000 children from 141 different pre-school settings. FOUND: Pre-school attendence improved cognitive development. High quality care can reduce aggression. CONCLUSION: Pre-school has a positive impact on social development.
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Evaluation of the EPPE project
Natural and field experiment-high ecological validity. Large sample size so findings can be generalised. Results are only correlational; can't determin cause and effect so other variables aren't accounted for. Daycare may not be the leading factor.
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Research against the findings of the EPPE project
Sammons et al: Analysed data and found slight risk of anti-social behaviour when children spend 20+ in daycare. Melhuish: Analysed data and noticed increased aggression amongst children who's caregiver constantly changed.
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Outline procedures and findings of DiLalla's study into peer relations
A correlational study into time spent in daycare and pro-social behaviour. Found a -ve correlation between time spent in daycare and pro-social behaviour. Children who spent more time in daycare were less cooperative and helpful with peers.
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Outline procedures and findings of Shea's daycare study
Videotaped 3-4 year olds at playtime during first 10 weeks of nursery. Found that children became more sociable the longer they were there, the amount of aggressive behaviour decreased and changes were greater in those attending 5 days, rather than 2
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Evaluation of Shea's study
Naturalistic-children displayed normal behaviours. High EV. No demand characteristics. Generalise with cautiom; only 1 nursery was studied. Findings could be due to something specific e.g. quality of care.
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Outline procedures of Campbell's daycare study
Studied Swedish children in constant daycare aged 18months-3years. Compared children in nursery-based daycare, children in family-based daycare and children who attended no daycare. Studied range of playtimes and social competence at different ages
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Findings of Campbell's study
Long days in daycare under 3years=less socially competent. More days, fewer hours=mre socially competent. Social skills develop around 3 and a half and stay relatively constant.
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Evaluation of Campbell's study
Prospective approach-followed babies through to adulthood and were able to see if daycare has long-term effects. Used a range of measures;teacher reports, self assessments etc. Can't be easily generalised as Sweden has high daycare funds
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Card 2


Outline the working memory model


Central executive; controls everything. VSS; visual information processing. Phonological loop; verbal and articulatory processing. All temp stores and limited capacity

Card 3


Strengths and weaknesses of WMM


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


3 factors affecting EWT


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Outline Brewer and Treyens study into schemas in EWT


Preview of the front of card 5
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