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  • Created by: KianaM
  • Created on: 13-03-14 17:32
Non - directional Hypothesis
This hypothesis states there will be a difference between the two variables but it does not specify whether the change will be positive or negative -it is two tailed.
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Null Hypothesis
This hypothesis states there will be NO difference or correlation between the two variables.
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Directional Hypothesis
This hypothesis states there will be a change and states what the change will be - it is one tailed.
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Measures of dispersion
The measurement of how far a set of values are spread, the less spread out the results the more reliable the data, forms of measures of dispersion are range, standard deviation and mean.
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Measure of central tendency
One representative value from a set of values found by using statistical tests e.g. mode or median.
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Experimental Hypothesis
A statement of what the study will show. (Forecast)
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Independent Variables
The variable that is manipulated by the psychologist, this may affect the dependent variable.
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Dependent Variable
The behaviours displayed by the participant in response to the independent variable.
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Operationalisation of variables
Operationalising variables involves defining a concept so that it can be measured.
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Correlation Analysis
The measurement of two variables and to what extent they are related to another.
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Control group
A group of people whose behaviour is not manipulated, it is used as a baseline to compare the experimental groups results against.
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Scattergraphs
A graph which shows the correlation between two variables.
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Ethics
The guidelines that dictate what is morally acceptable during a study. There are 5 - deceit, informed consent, protection of participants, confidentiality and consent.
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Interview
Face to face discussions; either structures or unstructured interviews.
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Rich Data
This is when the data that has been collected is both qualitative and quantatitive, having both of these creates rich data and makes the study's results more reliable.
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Reliability
If a study is considered reliable it will mean the findings are consistent, reproducable and dependable.
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Qualitative data
Information gained from interviews or questionnaires, this data is hard to collate and take time to do so, despite this is does contain personal opinions.
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Quantitative data
Information gained through means of science, this can be medical reports. This data is easy to collate nevertheless is fails to give a whole picture.
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Pilot study
A small scale practice to see if the study will work and what would need to be altered before running.
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External validity
Can the case study be picked up and moved into a different context (place, age, gender) and still get the same results, if they can it shows a global trend.
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Structured Interview
A series of set questions for each participant, the data collected is easy to analyse and compare - however the data fails to gain personal opinions or gain extra detail about the participants.
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Mundane realism
When a scientific study reflects real life or a real life situation it increases the liklihood of it having high external validity if the study also has interval validity.
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Internal validity
The extent to which the findings of the study support the original aim.
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Inter rater reliability
When 2 or more people observe the behaviours of participants then compare results to make the recordings/results more reliable - usually done in field or naturalistic studies.
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Demand characteristics
When participants in a study change their behaviour in attempt to please the investigator and give the results they need - this makes the study unreliable as the results are real.
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Investigator effects
When the behaviours observed are affected by something the investigator does or says or simply by his presense - therefore making the results of the study unreliable as the behaviours are not real.
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Participant attrition
The dropping out of participants during a longitudinal study, it reduces scientific validity and leaves only one type of personality group.
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Social desirability
How participants in a study change their behaviour in attempt to appear to others in a more favourable light.
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Field experiment
A designed study undertaken in a natural setting.
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Laboratory experiment
A study where the investigator controls the environment and manipulated the independent variables.
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Naturalistic experiment
An experiment where the psychologists use variations already in place instead of allocating groups, the behaviours are observed by the investigator with no interference.
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Random sampling
A way of selecting participants where every member of the target population has the same chance of being selected. For example: picking names from a hat. This is the fairest route and fastest however the participants chosen may be all be one gender.
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Volunteer sampling
Where psychologists advertise for participants to part in a study. This is a quick and easy method however it only brings out one personality type meaning the results are less generalisable and do not represent the wider population.
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Opportunity sampling
Pscyhologists ask people nearby to be part of their sample, this is easy and very quick however the target population might not represent and are usually one type of individual - if during the day at a pub.
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Repeated measures
The same participants used in all conditions of the study, in each variation or trial.
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Matched pairs
Participants are matched on relevant criteria and then randomly allocated into group / conditions. This method has great scientific worth and results are more reliable, nonetheless this method is the most time consuming.
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Longitudinal study
Studies that are done over a long period of time and they can suffer from participant attrition, very costly and time consuming but gets a whole picture and has rich data.
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Temporal validity
If the validity and results of this study can still be used because of the time it was done.
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Systematic sampling
Selection of participants by every 'nth' number from a target population. This is easy to do and can have variations in the participants, but it can be time - consuming and the sample may not be representable of the population e.g. same sex or age.
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Stratified sampling
A sample made up of different layers, subgroups are formed and then a percentage is taken from each subgroup. This method is extremely scientific but very costly and time consuming.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

This hypothesis states there will be NO difference or correlation between the two variables.

Back

Null Hypothesis

Card 3

Front

This hypothesis states there will be a change and states what the change will be - it is one tailed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The measurement of how far a set of values are spread, the less spread out the results the more reliable the data, forms of measures of dispersion are range, standard deviation and mean.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

One representative value from a set of values found by using statistical tests e.g. mode or median.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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