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Define attachment:
An emotional bond between two people that endures over time. Leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity seeking. Serves the function of protecting an infant.
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Maccoby's 4 characteristics of attachement:
Seeking proximity. Distress in separation. Joy on reunion. General orientation of behaviour.
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There are two explanations of attachment, what's the difference?
Bowlby's is an evolutionary theory which states that attachment is an innate instinct. Learning theory explains that we are born as blank slates and merely learn to attach.
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What are social releasers?
Actions an infant can perform to "unlock" the innate compulsion of adults to care for them.
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Explain the critical period:
Babies have a critical period of 2 years in which they need to make an attachment. Bowlby said that if this didn't happen the child would be damaged for life.
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Explain monotropy:
Bowlby believed that infants form one very special attachment with their mother, which was called the monotropic bond.
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Explain the internal working model:
This is a special mental schema that is created through the monotropic bond on relationships, based off of that original relationship.
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Four evaluation points for Bowlby's theory of attachment:
Mixed evidence for monotropy. Support for social releasers. Support for internal working models. Temperament may be as important as attachment.
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Name the behaviours used to judge attachment in the Strange situation:
Proximity seeking. Exploration and secure-base behaviour. Stranger anxiety. Separation anxiety. Response to reunion.
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The 7 stages of the Strange situation:
1.The child is encouraged to explore 2.Stranger comes in and tries to interact with the child 3.Caregiver leaves child and stranger together 4.Caregiver returns and stranger leaves 5.Caregiver leaves child alone 6.Stranger returns 7.Caregiver returns
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The 3 attachment types:
Secure attachment (type B). Insecure-avoidant attachment (type A) Insecure-resistant attachment (type C)
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Four evaluation points for the Strange Situation:
Support for validity. Good reliability. The test may be culture-bound. There is at least one more attachment type (disorganised)
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2 subsections of Learning theory:
Classical conditioning & Operant conditioning
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Explain Classical conditioning:
A neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that already elicits a response such that, over time, the neutral stimulus also produces that response.
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Explain Operant conditioning:
Involves learning to repeat behaviour, or not, depending on its consequences. Whereby a pleasant consequence reinforces a behaviour.
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Four evaluation points for Learning Theory:
Counter-evidence from animal research. Counter-evidence from human research. It ignores other factors associated with forming attachments. Newer learning theory explanation (Hay and Vespo)
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Explain Reciprocity:
An interaction where each person (infant and mother) responds to the other and elicits a response from them.
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Explain Interactional Synchrony:
A theory of social communication where behaviours of one or more individuals become synchronized.
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Hey Greg, what's a Dyad?
A dyad is two individuals regarded as a pair (mother-child dyad).
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Four stages of attachment, go!:
Stage 1: Asocial stage (first few weeks). Stage 2: Indiscriminate attachment. Stage 3: Specific attachment. Stage 4: multiple attachments.
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Four evaluation points for Shaffer and Emerson's stages of attachment, now!:
Good external validity. Longitudinal design. Limited ample characteristics. Problem studying the asocial stage (because babies)
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Go ahead and tell me the two subsets animals are divided into which have profound effects on the way they form relationships:
Precocial animals (geese, horses). Altrical animals (primates and your regular Joe)
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What happened when Lorenz mixed up his experimental group and his control?
They continued to follow their respective imprinted peeps.
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Two evaluation points for Lorenz' research:
Generalisability to humans. Some of Lorenz's observations have been questioned.
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You! With all the hair! Three evaluation points for Harlow's research!:
Theoretical value. Practical value. Ethical issues.
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Maternal deprivation, what did Bowlby propose?
Bowlby proposed that the continuous care from the mother is essential for normal psychological development, and that prolonged separation can damage emotional and intellectual development.
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At what ages did Rutter assess the subjects of his ERA study?
4,6,11 and 15 years.
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Four evaluation points for The Romanian orphan studies:
Practical applications. Fewer extraneous variables than other orphan studies. The Romanion orphanages were not typical. Ethical issues.
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What did Kerns (1994) find out about the effects of attachment type on the quality of peer relationships in childhood?
Securely attached infants go on to form the best quality childhood friendships. Whereas insecurely attacged infants have friendship difficulties.
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What did Myron-Wilson and Smith (1998) find out about attachment type and bullying involvement?
Secure children were unlikely to be involved with bullying. I-avoidant children were most likely to be victims. I-resistant were most likely to be the bullies.
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What did Bailey et al (2007) find about the effects of the mother's attachment on the infant's attachment?
They found that the attachment types directly corresponded. This is because people base their parenting style on their internal working model, so attachment type can be passed on through generations of a family.
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Four evaluation points for the influence of early attchment on later relationships:
Evidence of contunuity of attachment type is mixed. Most studies have issues of validity. Association does not mean causality. Self-report is concious but internal working models are not.
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Card 2

Front

Maccoby's 4 characteristics of attachement:

Back

Seeking proximity. Distress in separation. Joy on reunion. General orientation of behaviour.

Card 3

Front

There are two explanations of attachment, what's the difference?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are social releasers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the critical period:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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