Lophotrochozoa recap & Ecdysozoa group

What makes a successful animal design?
Feeding itself, protection, reproduction and dispersal, sensing its environment and moving
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What did the protostomes divide into?
Lophotrochozoa and ecdysozoa
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Give examples of groups in the lophotrochozoa
Trochophore larvae, annelida, Bryozoa and brachiopoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes
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What provides support and protection for ecdysozoa?
The external cuticle which is secreted by the underlying epidermis
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How do ecdysozoa grow with their external cuticle?
They shed it or moult it, replacing it with a larger one (ecdysis= 'get out of')
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Give examples of groups in ecdysozoa
Nematoda, tardigrada, onychophora, crustacea, myriapoda, insecta, chelicerata
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Nematoda- What are they?
'Thread/ round worms', unsegmented worms, extremely widespread, present in most habitats, several are parasitic,
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Describe the structure of a Nematoda
Pseudocoel (vacuolated cells), body under high pressure providing hydrostatic skeleton which works together with muscles along body to move, no circular muscles, body cover in complex cuticle with 9 layers of collagen, no blood or respiratory systems
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How do Nematoda feed?
Through-gut with sub-terminal anus, mouth has 3 lips, leads to a cuticle lined pharynx, pharynx acts as a pump with 1-way valve, no stomach, faeces expelled with energy
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How do Nematoda reproduce?
Separate sexes in most species, internal fertilisation, some brood eggs until hatching, young resemble adults, moult 4 times
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How long is the life span of a Nematoda?
4 weeks, egg to mature in 4 days (because of this it is used as a model organism in neuroscience, ageing and sleep)
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Give an example of what a Nematoda can cause in humans?
River blindness
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Describe river blindness
Fly bites human, infecting them with Nematoda larvae where they migrate and form nodules and reproduce (female can produce 1000 microfilariae a day, if microfilariae migrate to eye they can cause blindness
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Tardigrada- What are they?
'slow walker', water bears and moss piglets, cuticle of protein plus chitin, haemocoel (hydrostatic skeleton), 4 pairs of fleshy legs, head, 3 body segments and 1 tail segment, feeds on algae and plant cells
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Onychophora- What are they?
'Claw bearers', velvet worms, conical baggy legs, bear claws, thin protein cuticle with chitin, restricted to moist environments, hydrostatic skeleton, gas exchange like insects, ambush prey, squirt slime to attack prey or defend, form social groups
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the protostomes divide into?

Back

Lophotrochozoa and ecdysozoa

Card 3

Front

Give examples of groups in the lophotrochozoa

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What provides support and protection for ecdysozoa?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do ecdysozoa grow with their external cuticle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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