Proteins from amino acids

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 01-03-14 12:22
What do 2 amino acids join together to form?
A dipeptide.
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What is the bond between joined amino acids?
A peptide bond.
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What do lots of amino acids joined together form?
A polypeptide.
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What can proteins consist of in terms of peptide chains?
A single polypeptide chain of 100s of amino acids or more than 1 polypeptide chain bonded to form a larger molecule.
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What are the amino acids in a polypeptide chain sometimes referred to as and why?
Amino acid residues because part of the molecule is lost in the condensation reaction that produces the peptide bond.
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Where are polypeptides and proteins made?
In cells on ribsomes.
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What process makes polypeptides and proteins?
Protein synthesis.
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What does protein synthesis use and why?
It uses messenger RNA to put amino acids in the right order to make a specific polypeptide chain.
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What does mRNA specifically do in protein synthesis?
It passes through the ribosome, causing amino acids to join 1 at a time in a condensation reaction to form a peptide bond and a longer chain.
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What is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain determined by?
mRNA.
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How do you make proteins different from one another?
By passing different mRNA molecules through ribosomes.
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Define primary structure.
Given by the specific sequence of amino acids that make up the protein.
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How many proteins may an organism have, and what does each have?
10 000, and each has it's own function.
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What is each protein made from?
Amino acids joined by peptide bonds in a chain.
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What does every protein have at either end?
An amino group at 1 end and an acid group at the other end.
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What is the function of each protein determined by?
It's structure, which is determined by its amino acid sequence.
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What do different amino acids have, and what does this mean?
They have different properties, which means the sequence of them in a protein will have an effect on its properties.
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How many different types of R-groups are there?
20.
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How do you calculate the number of possibilities of a protein?
Multiply the number of possibilities at each point.
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How many possibilities are there of a protein which is 4 amino acids long?
20x20x20x20 = 160 000.
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A small protein may be 100 amino acids long, so how big is the number of possible proteins?
Very large.
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What is the formation and breakage of peptide bonds in organisms catalysed by?
Enzymes.
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What don't covalent bonds do in cell conditions?
Appear or fall apart.
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What is the enzymes that catalyses the breaking of peptide bonds and where is it mainly found in organisms?
Protease, found in where food is digested.
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What do you always need to state when talking about condensation and hydrolysis reactions in organisms?
That they're enzyme catalysed reactions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the bond between joined amino acids?

Back

A peptide bond.

Card 3

Front

What do lots of amino acids joined together form?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can proteins consist of in terms of peptide chains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the amino acids in a polypeptide chain sometimes referred to as and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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