Proteins ( AS LEVEL BIOLOGY)

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  • Created by: patricia
  • Created on: 17-11-13 14:36
What are proteins?
Polypeptides combined together
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What is an Amino acid?
basic monomer units
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What is a polypeptide?
When more than two amino acids join together to make a polymer
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What is a dipeptide?
When two amino acids join together
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What is the structure of an Amino acid?
All amino acid have the general structure of of an Amino group (NH2)+carboxyl group (COOH)+ a Hydrogen+Radical group--->attached to a Carbon atom
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What is a peptide bond?
A bond that forms between amino acids by condensation reaction, releasing one molecule of water forming a dipeptide or a polypeptide chain
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What is the primary structure of protein?
The sequence of amino acid/monomers in a polypeptide chainW
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Why is the primary structure important?
The sequence of amino acid determines what bonds will be formed and how the protein will be folded up into its 3D structure
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Sum up why primary structure is important
Because sequence of amino acid a polpeptide change will determine that tertiary structure of protein and bonds. Tertiary structure will determine the protein's properties
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A protein shape is very specific to its....
Function
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What is the secondary structure?
when hydrogen bonds are formed between different amino acids. Forming a coiled (a) helix or a (b) pleated sheet
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What is a tertiary Structure?
When more bonds are formed between polypeptide chains. So helix and beat pleated are twisted and folded further into 3D structures
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For proteins that are made out of only single polypeptide chain , which stage is the last?
The tertiary structure
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What are the different bonds formed between polypeptide chains in a protein?
Disulfide, Ionic and Hydrogen bonds
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Describe a disulfide bond.
Whenthe two amino acid Cysteine's Sulfur bonds together/
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Describe the hydrogen bonds
hydrophobic groups clump together in the protein, this means the hydrophilic group are pushed out
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Describe the ionic bonds.
When two oppositely charged "R" groups join together
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Which are the weakest bonds formed in tertiary structure go in order from weakest to strongest
Hydrogen, ionic and disulfide
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What is the Quaternary structure?
Is the way the polypeptide chain are assembled together.
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For proteins that are made up of more than one polypeptide chain which stage is the last?
The Quarternary Structure
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What is the test for Protein?
Biuret test
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How does Biuret detect protein?
By detecting peptide links. The purple colour shows protein is present. A blue colour shows protein is not present
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What are the two types of Protein?
Fibrous and Gobular protein
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Name one type of Fibrous protein.What is the function of F.P?
Collagen. It has structural functions
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Name two types of Gobular protein. What is the function of G.P?
Haemoglobin and enzymes. They carry out metabollic functions
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What are Fibrous proteins made of?
long insoluble polypeptide chains that are tightly coiled up around eachother to form a rope.P.C are held together by lots of bonds: DISULFIDE AND HYDROGEN,which make the protein strong
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Explain why the Quarternary structure of Collagen makes it a suitable molecule for a Tendon?
It has a polypeptide chain wound together to form a strong, rope like structure and has strength of pull of the tendon
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Explain why cross-linkages between amino acids of the polpeptide chain increase the strength and stability of collagen fibre
Prevents the individual polypeptide chain from sliding one to another and so they gain strength bcause they're a single unit
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The points where one collagen molecule ends and begins are spread throughout the collagen fibre than all being in the same position. Why?
The junctions between two adjacent points are points of weaknesses . If they occured all in the same point in a fibre, this will be a major weak point at which a fibre might break.
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What is the difference between a protein and a glycogen?
There can only be one sort of Glycogen because there is only one sort of glucose. Unlike protein where you have different amino acids that polymerise into a primary structure
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an Amino acid?

Back

basic monomer units

Card 3

Front

What is a polypeptide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a dipeptide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the structure of an Amino acid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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