Proteins and mutations

These cards are beased on the second part of B3 (Proteins and mutations), it involves sub-subjects such as grouping organsims, Enzymes and Mutations. I hope these help you to revise.

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All proteins are made of long chains of_______ joined together.
amino acids
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Proteins have different functions. Some examples are:
-structual proteins used to build cells and tissues, e.g. collegen.
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what are the other examles of proteins?
- carrier proteins, e.g. haemoglobin which carries oxygen. also... Hormones, which carry messages to control a reaction, e.g.insulin controls blood sugar levels.
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Each protein has its own _______ and _______ of amino acids. This makes each type of protein molecule a different ______and gives it a different _______.
number, order, shape, function.
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What do enzymes do? What name is given?
Enzymes speed up a reaction, they are called biological catylsts.
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Enzymes catylse chemical reactions occuring in______?
respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis of living cells.
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The ______ molecule fits into the _______ of the enzyme like a key fitting into a lock.
substrate, active site.
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Enzymes all work best at a perticular temperature and pH, this is called..?
The optimum. Any change away from the optimum would slow down the reaction.
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Describe enzyme activity at low temperatures.
molecules are moving slower and are less likely to collide.
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Describe enzyme activity at high temperatures.
At very high or low pH values and at high temperatures the enzyme active active site changes shape.
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What is it called when the enzyme active site changes shape?
It's called denaturing. The substrate cannot fit, so cannot react so quickly.
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Mutations may occur ______, but can occur more often by ________or ________.
spontaneously, radiation, chemicals,
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when mutations occur, what can it lead to?
The production of different proteins.
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Mutations are often ______ but may have no effect. Occasionaly they might give the individual an _________.
harmful, advantage.
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what does a mutation do in terms of bases?
A mutation changes the order if the four bases. No other bases are involved.
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Although every cell in the body has the same _____ it does not mean that all the same ______ are made.
genes, proteins.
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Why aren't all the same proteins maade?
because different genes are switched off in different cells. This allows different cells to perform different functions.
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Gene mutations _____ or _______ the production of the protein that is normally made, because they ______ the ________of DNA, and so change the _____ of amino acids in the protein.
alter, prevent, change, base code, order.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Proteins have different functions. Some examples are:

Back

-structual proteins used to build cells and tissues, e.g. collegen.

Card 3

Front

what are the other examles of proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Each protein has its own _______ and _______ of amino acids. This makes each type of protein molecule a different ______and gives it a different _______.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do enzymes do? What name is given?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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