Proteins & Enzymes

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  • Created by: kodion
  • Created on: 14-04-14 16:45
What are protein molecules made up of?
Long chains of amino acids tightly folded
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Why are the long chains of amino acids folded?
To produce a specific shape that enables other molecules to fit into the protein
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How do proteins act as structural components of tissues such as muscles?
muscles contain interlinking protein fibres which interact when the muscles contract
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How do proteins act as hormones?
Some hormones are proteins like insulin. Hormones are released into the blood from glands and have specific shapes to attach to molecules on the cell membrane of specific target cells.
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What are antibodies made of?
Proteins
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How do antibodies work?
They are released by white blood cells & have a specific shape which attaches to antigens. Antigens are chemicals that pathogens carry/release → the antibody prevents pathogens from damaging cells
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What are antigens?
Chemicals that pathogens carry/release
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What are the biological catalysts which proteins act as called?
Enzymes
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What do catalysts do?
Increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up/ consumed in the reaction
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What are enzymes
biological catalysts (protein molecules) & their shape is vital for the enzymes function
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What do enzymes do?
Control & sequence all of the reactions that occur inside & outside cells in all living organisms
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What is the one type of molecule will fit into the enzyme called?
The substrate
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What is the active site?
The part of the enzyme which the substrate fits into
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What is activation energy?
Energy required for a chemical reaction to take place and is reduced by enzymes.
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What is the effect of temperature on enzymes?
the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions increases as the temperature increases. The enzyme & substrates move around faster → they collide more often
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What is the optimum temperature?
When the enzyme is working fastest which is approx. 40°C
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What is meant by the active site being denatured?
The structure of the enzyme changes above the optimum temperature → the active site becomes a different shape & the substrate no longer fits
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How does pH affect the shape of the active site?
It affects the forces that hold the enzyme molecule together → a change in pH will denature the enzyme
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Different enzymes work best at different pH values
Stomach enzymes work best in acidic conditions. Mouth enzymes work best in neutral conditions.
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What are extracellular enzymes?
Enzymes that work outside body cells
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How are digestive enzymes produced?
Specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut
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What do digestive enzymes do?
Catalyse the breakdown of large molecules of food into smaller molecules as they pass out of the cells into the gut and come in contact with food molecules.
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What is digestion?
The process where food is broken down into substances that the body can absorb
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What is nutrition?
The process of taking in and using food
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why are the long chains of amino acids folded?

Back

To produce a specific shape that enables other molecules to fit into the protein

Card 3

Front

How do proteins act as structural components of tissues such as muscles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do proteins act as hormones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are antibodies made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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