Proteins - Structure and Bonding.

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  • Created by: shyde7
  • Created on: 29-03-16 14:48
The sequence of amino aacids in a protein chain is called ...?
It's primary structure.
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Why is the number and order of amino acids in a chain important?
By changing one amino acid you can alter the function of the protein.
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How many amino acids do most proteins have?
At least 100.
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How many different ways are there to order 100 amino acids?
20^100, because at every point along the chain there are 20 alternatives.
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The function of an amino acid is determined by what?
Its structure.
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What is the secondary structure of a protein chain?
The shape the amino acid chain twists into.
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What is the name given to an amino acid chain that coils?
An alpha-helix.
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How many amino acids are there per 10 turns of the alpha-helix?
36.
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How is the alpha-helix held in shape?
Hydrogen bonds between the -NH group of one amino acid and the -CO group of another., four places ahead of it in the chain.
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What other structure can amino acid chains form?
A slight zig zag.
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What is it called when the amino acid chain with a slight zig-zag fold in on itself?
A beta-pleated sheet.
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What holds the sheet together?
Hydrogen bonds between the -NH group of one amino acid and the -Co group of another furthe down the strand.
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Do all chains have to adopt a regular structure?
No. Some do not adopt one, and others may have more than one secondary structure at different ends of the chain.
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What is the tertiary structure?
The name given whe the cold and pleats themselves start to fold.
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What makes the tertiary structure stay in its precise shape?
Bonds between amino acids which lie closely to each other.
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What tertiary structure do fibrous proteins adopt?
A supercoiled shape.
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What tertiary structure do globular proteins adopt?
A spherical shape.
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What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
This is how multiple protein chains are arranged to make a protein molecule.
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What bonds hold together the primaury structure of the protein?
Peptide bonds, which are covalent bonds and therefore very strong.
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The secondary structre is primarily held together by which bonds?
Hydrogen bonds.
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Why do hydrogen bonds form?
Because of the polar nature of certain atoms, slightly positive hydrogen atoms are attracted to the slightly negative oxygen atoms.
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In amino acids, which 3 groups do hydrogen bonds create?
Hydroxyl (-OH), Carboxyl (-COOH) and amino groups (-NHH)
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Aside from these three groups, where else would hydrogen bonds form in amino acids?
Between R groups on different amino acids.
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Why woukd hydrogen bonds form between the R groups of amino acids?
To hold the tertiary structure or quaternary structure of amino acids in thw correct shape.
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Where can ionic bonds form in amino acids?
The carboxyl and amino groups that are part of the R groups.
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What do the carboxyl groups and amino groups in R groups of amino acids ionise into?
NH3+ and COO-. Because these groups are positive and negative they are strongly attracted to each other.
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Which amino acid's R group contains sulfer?
Cysteine.
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What are disulfide links?
Strong covalent bonds.
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Which parts of R groups tend to associate together at the centre of a polypeptide and why?
The hydrophobic parts of these groups in order to avoid water.
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Which parts of the R group are likely to be on the outside of a polypeptide?
The hydrophilic parts of the R group.
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What effect do hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions have on an amino acid chain?
They cause twisting, which changes its shape.
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Inside a living organism, most proteins are surrounded by what?
Water.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is the number and order of amino acids in a chain important?

Back

By changing one amino acid you can alter the function of the protein.

Card 3

Front

How many amino acids do most proteins have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many different ways are there to order 100 amino acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The function of an amino acid is determined by what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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