Proteins - Amino Acids

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  • Created by: shyde7
  • Created on: 28-03-16 13:38
Proteins are comprised of what?
Large chains of amino acids.
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Proteins form which essential component in animals?
Structural components e.g. muscles.
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Why is a proteins ability to adopt a specific shape a good thing?
It means they can form enzymes, antibodies and hormones.
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What function do proteins peform in a membrane?
Act as carriers and pores for active transport across the membrane and facillitated diffusion.
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What are essential amino acids?
Amino acids that must be injested.
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In the right conditions, plants can do what that animals cannot?
Make all the amino acids they need. However this is subject to the plants ability to find fixed nitrogen.
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Which elements are amino acids made of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur.
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How many amino acids are there?
500
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How many amino acids are found in proteins?
20.
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What is the word for when an amino acid is found in a protein?
Proteinogenic.
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On each protein chain of amino acids you will find what on one end and what on the other?
You will find an amino group (-NH2) at one and a carboxyl (-COOH) group at the other.
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What does the R group stand for in an amino acid?
It does not stand for any particualr element, but is different in each amino acid.
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What is the R group for glycine?
An H atom.
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What is the R group in alanine?
CH3.
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What is thr R group for cysteine?
CH3S.
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What is the suffix for almost all amino acids?
-ine.
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Why would an amino acid not end in -ine?
Becausue the R group is acidic.
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What other properties of R groups vary?
They vary in size, charge and polarity. Some are hydrophilic and some are hydrophobic.
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What happens when amino acids are dissolved in water?
The amino group and the carboxyl group can ionise.
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What does ionising the amino group and the carboxyl group mean?
The amino group can accept a H+ ion and go from NH2 to NH3+. The carboxyl group can go from COOH to COO-
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What happens when amino acids are dissolved in solution with a low pH?
The amino acid will accept H+ ions.
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What happens when amino acids are dissolved in solution with a high pH?
The amino acid will release H+ ions.
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Why is an amino acid known as pmphoteric?
Because it has acidic and basic properties.
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Why can amino acids act as buffers?
Because they can accept and release H+ ions, and so can regulate changes in pH. A buffer is a substance that resists changes in pH.
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What bond joins amino acids?
Peptide bonds.
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What reactions are involved in making and breaking these bonds?
A condensation reaction makes them and a hydrolysis reaction breaks them.
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What is used to cataluse these reactions?
Enzymes.
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Which enzymes are used to break peptide bonds during digestion?
Protease.
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What other function to protease enzymes perform?
They also break down protein hormones so their effects aren't permanent.
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What is a dipeptide?
Two amino acids joined together.
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What is a polypeptide?
A chain of amino acids.
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Is the peptide bond depicted as single or double?
Single.
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What gives the peptide bond some of the properties of a double bond?
The electron arrangement around the bond.
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What effect does the electron arrangement have on the peptide bond?
The bond is shorter than the conventional C-N bond, it inhibits rotation around the bond and makes the chain relatively rigid.
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Card 2

Front

Proteins form which essential component in animals?

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Structural components e.g. muscles.

Card 3

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Why is a proteins ability to adopt a specific shape a good thing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What function do proteins peform in a membrane?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are essential amino acids?

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