Proteins

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What are proteins made up of?
Polypeptides which are chains of amino acids
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Name the 3 groups in amino acids
Amine group, carboxyl group and R-group
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What is the name of the bonds between amino acids?
Peptide bonds
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Where do amino acids form the peptide bonds?
Between the carboxyl group and the amine group
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What is a dipeptide?
2 amino acids joined
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What is a polypeptide?
3 or more amino acids in chain- a protein
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What is the enzyme that catalyses the formation of proteins?
Peptidyl transferase
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What is chromatography? How does it work?
A method used to separate different amino acids. Amino acids have different solubilities so they travel up the chromatography paper in different distances, we use this to identify the amino acids.
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What is the primary structure?
The sequence of amino acids, this influences how a polypeptide folds and in turn determines its function. The only bonds present in the primary structure are the peptide bonds. Primary structure determines where H bonds form in secondary
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What is the secondary structure?
The nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen atoms of the amino acids repeating structure interact, hydrogen bonds form between them. This can create either a alpha helix (H bonds form within chain pulling them into a coil) or a beta pleated sheet (parallel H)
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What is the tertiary structure?
The folding of a protein into its final shape which in turn brings the R-groups of different amino acids close enough to interact.
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What are the interactions between the R-groups in tertiary structure?
1) Hydrogen bonds (the weakest), 2) Hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions (Between polar and non polar R-groups), 3) Ionic bonds (between oppositely charged R-groups), 4) Disulphide bridges (Strongest of the bonds)
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What is a disulphide bridge?
A covalent bond formed between R-groups with sulfur
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What is the quaternary structure?
This is the same as the tertiary structure however its the interactions of other protein molecules instead of within one molecule. Where 1 or more subunit (individual protein molecules) associate.
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Explain how hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions can effect the final shape of a protein
Proteins are assembled in the aqueous environment of the cytoplasm, so the way the protein folds is due to whether an R-group is H-phobic or H-philic, Phobics go on the inside and philics go on the outside.
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Describe how polypeptides are broken down
Proteases catalyse the hydrolysis reaction where water molecules break the peptide bonds so that the amino acid groups are reformed (amine and carboxylic)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the 3 groups in amino acids

Back

Amine group, carboxyl group and R-group

Card 3

Front

What is the name of the bonds between amino acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do amino acids form the peptide bonds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a dipeptide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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