Proteins

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 26-03-16 14:46
What are fibrous proteins?
They perform a structural role and form long chains which run parallel to each other. The chains are linked by cross-bridges to form stable molecules that form fibres. They're insoluble in water, strong, though and provide tensile strength.
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What are examples of fibrous proteins?
Collagen, found in tendons, the walls of blood vessels, bone and ligaments. Made of there polypeptide chains wound around each other like a rope. Keratin found in hair.
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What are globular proteins?
Over 90% of proteins are in the class, they have irregular amino acid sequences. They form compact, spherical structures like a ball of string and have relatively unstable structure and are soluble.
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What are some examples of globular proteins?
They are enzymes, antibodies, plasma proteins and hormones. Haemoglobin is made of 4 folded polypeptide chains at the centre of which is an iron-containing group called haem.
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What do proteins contain?
Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and also nitrogen. Many proteins also contain sulphur and some proteins also contain phosphorus.
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What biological molecules can proteins be?
Proteins can be enzymes, antibodies, hormones, carrier and transport molecules and they can have a structural role.
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What are proteins made up of?
Proteins are polymers and are made up of thousands of repeating monomers called amino acids, there's 20 different amino acids so thousands of combinations. They're very varied molecules.
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What determines the proteins shape and function?
The arrangement of amino acids.
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What's the basic structure for all amino acids?
They have an amino group (NH2) which ias basic, a carboxyl group (COOH) which is acidic and a R group which differs from amino acid to amino acid.
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What bond joins amino acids together and what is the name for when you join two amino acids together?
A peptide bond joins amino acids together. It's a covalent bond. When you join two amino acids together you make a dipeptide.
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What do the monomers join together by?
They join together in a condensation reaction, the end result's more condensed that the component parts and also water's produced as a by-product.
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How is water produced?
The amino groups of one amino acids reacts with the carboxyl group of another amino acid, producing water.
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What is a polypeptide and what can it do?
When many acids join together a polypeptide is formed, when this folds up into a 3D structure a protein is made.
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What is primary structure?
Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain, determined by the base code of the gene that codes for the protein. Bonding is peptide bonding.
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What is secondary structure?
The shape that the polypeptide forms a result of hydrogen bonding. There's two options, alpha helix and beated pleated sheet.
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What is the Alpha (a) helix?
The long chain of amino acids forms a coiling structure due to the weak hydrogen bonds between amino acids within the chain, also known as intramolecular hydrogen bonds.
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What is a Beta pleated sheet?
The long chain of amino acids forms a concertinaed sheet as a result of weak hydrogen bonds between amino acids in difefrent chains, known as intermolecular hydrogen bonds.
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What is tertiary structure?
It's formed by the bending and twisting of the polypeptide into a compact 3D structure. This shape is maintained by disulhpide bonds, ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds.
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What is quaternary structure?
This is when two or more polypeptide chains within the tertiary structure combine. These are associated with non-proten groups and form large, complex molecules.
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Card 2

Front

What are examples of fibrous proteins?

Back

Collagen, found in tendons, the walls of blood vessels, bone and ligaments. Made of there polypeptide chains wound around each other like a rope. Keratin found in hair.

Card 3

Front

What are globular proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are some examples of globular proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do proteins contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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