Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis
What is protein synthesis? Protein synthesis consists of translation and transcription in the production of proteins and polypeptides.
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Translation
Translation occurs in the nucleus. The DNA strands are unzipped and a RNA molecule joins one strand of DNA with complementary base pairs. The mRNA is synthesized and moves out of the nucleus.
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Transcription
Transcription occurs in the ribosome of a cell. The mRNA attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules which carry specific amino acids. Each mRNA codon codes for a specific amino acid and they form complementary base pairs.
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Transcription (Continued)
This creates a peptide bond and then creates a polypeptide when the bases pair up. Polypeptides are proteins.
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Different types of DNA
DNA - Base pairs are CG and AT. This is what is unzipped at the first stage of Translation. mRNA - Base pairs are AU, CG this is what is synthesized at the last stage of translation. tRNA - Base pairs are AU and CG this is so it can pair up with mRNA
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Different types of DNA (Continued)
strand during transcription. Codon - Consists of three complementary base pairs, amino acid.
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Mitosis
Mitosis is used for growth and repair. If you were to cut yourself then mitosis would take place to heal the cut. In mitosis the number of chromosomes double and then the cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells which are diploid.
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Meiosis
Meiosis is asexual reproduction. This is where the number of chromosomes double and then divide into four daughter cells. These cells are not genetically identical and are haploid cells, sex cells.
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Stem Cells
Stem cells are cells that can grow into any cell. This is because the genetic material in the cell does not have a set function. This means they can cure genetic diseases and can grow into different cells in the human body.
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Advantages to cloning
They will be genetically identical and all would have the desired characteristic.
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Disadvantages of cloning
If the animal is susceptible to disease or changes in the environment then the animals will also be susceptible to disease. It could also lead to less variation in animals.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Translation occurs in the nucleus. The DNA strands are unzipped and a RNA molecule joins one strand of DNA with complementary base pairs. The mRNA is synthesized and moves out of the nucleus.

Back

Translation

Card 3

Front

Transcription occurs in the ribosome of a cell. The mRNA attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules which carry specific amino acids. Each mRNA codon codes for a specific amino acid and they form complementary base pairs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This creates a peptide bond and then creates a polypeptide when the bases pair up. Polypeptides are proteins.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

DNA - Base pairs are CG and AT. This is what is unzipped at the first stage of Translation. mRNA - Base pairs are AU, CG this is what is synthesized at the last stage of translation. tRNA - Base pairs are AU and CG this is so it can pair up with mRNA

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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