Product Design Revision

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  • Created by: Théa
  • Created on: 13-06-13 14:09
What is meant by Refuse?
Refusing to buy certain products or use certain things, such as extra packaging.
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What is meant by Re-use?
Re-using products which have not been used to their full capacity, or finding another purpose for them. Doing this reduces the consumption of the product, the materials and their disposal. For example, bags for life. About using it to its maximum.
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What is meant by Repair?
Thinking about whether it is always a good idea to buy a new product rather than fixing an old one.
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What is meant by Recycle?
Many materials can be recycled, to be turned into a new product. Materials such as card, aluminium, and glass are easily recycled. This reduces the amount of that material being used, and cuts down its production and the use of raw materials.
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What is meant by Rethink?
Perhaps it is time for a radical change in the way we buy and dispose of products.
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What is meant by Carbon footprint?
Everything we produce, has a carbon footprint. Which is a total amount of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases which are emitted into the atmosphere during a products lifetime. Designers and manufacturers are having to find ways of reducing this.
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What is fair trade?
Fair trade is a foundation which helps poor people, mainly workers and farmers, who originally would not get a fair price for the goods they produced. When fair conditions and the Fairtrade standards are met, a product will be given Fair Trade symbol
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What is Just-in-time (JIT) production?
Where materials or pieces arrive from a supplier, just in time for the assembly of the product. This is good as it is quick and efficient, plus no extra money needs to be spent on storage, but if it doesn't arrive on time, then production stops.
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What is Electronic data interchange (EDI)?
It involves the transfer of structured data from one computer system to another, without human intervention. It is good as it makes things faster, and information is sent quickly and efficiently to suppliers informing them on which parts are required
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What is stock control?
This generally uses EDI nowadays. When a barcode is scanned, the computer monitors how much of a certain product is left in stock. When this gets low, the computer can request more by EDI.
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What is CAD?
Computer-aided design. This is good, as it can be edited and changed easily, as well as being copied and tesselated, however it requires a computer and someone with the skills to use the program.
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What is CAM?
Computer-aided manufacture. This is good, as it is accurate, quick, and requires very little workers, however does cost quite a lot and it difficult to repair unless you have lots of knowledge about the equipment.
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What is rapid prototyping?
A fast, accurate process, which enables products to be modelled from the designer's CAD drawings, which are passed directly into a CNC machine. This allows shapes to be tested, before having to invest in mould-making.
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What does CNC mean?
Computer numerical control
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What is stereolithography (STL)?
A rapid prototyping process which produces realistic models and working prototypes. A CAD/CAM laser draws outlines of the product onto liquid resin, and where the laser touches, the resin solidifies, building a 3D prototype.
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What has video conferencing got to do with product design?
Using computers for video conferencing, webcams, and communication tools such as Skype, have allowed us to communicate face to face with people all over the world. This is beneficial for product design, as it allows designers + manufacturers to talk.
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What is remote manufacturing?
It is common nowadays for designers to send designs electronically to other parts of the world where the product will; be manufactured. This is advantageous, as it allows companies to produce products in countries where it is cheaper to do so.
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How is software sharing connected to ICT in manufacture?
Because people around the world can have access to the internet and sharing software is crucial in manufacturing, as files need to be uploaded and downloaded for manufacture, stock control and the sourcing of data.
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What is automation?
Automation involves the use of CNC. CNC uses computer systems to read instructions, drive and control industrial tools, machines and processes, and reduces the need for human intervention. It can use robots to do repetitive and dangerous tasks.
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What do robots have to do with production?
Robots can be controlled by CNC to perform tasks, which would previously have been done by workers. However, robots can work all the time, unlike employees.
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What are flexible manufacturing systems?
Flexible manufacturing refers to the organising of production into 'cells' of machines performing different tasks. They are usually set out in a U shape, rather than a production line, so one person can operate several machines.
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What is lost pattern casting?
This technique is used for complex shapes. The pattern is made from polystyrene foam or wax, which is buried in the sand, and when the hot metal is poured in, it burns away the foam, filling the space. However this gives off toxic fumes.
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What is die casting?
Die casting is similar for injection moulding, just for metals. Alloys with low melting points are used, such as pewter. Molten metal is forced into the mould until it cools.
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What is rotational moulding?
This is a process used for making hollow plastic products. The material is placed in the mould, then heated, and then rotated in all directions so the polymer sticks to the mould. However, this is slower than injection and blow moulding.
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What is line bending?
This involves heating a thermoplastic, usually acrylic, sheet over a strip heater, until is becomes soft. This allows the plastic to be bent to a desired angle. Cold sheet metal can also do this, but rather than being heated, it is bent between bars.
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What is soft soldering?
It uses a lead-based alloy. Flux is applied to the joint and heated with a gas torch or metal soldering bit, used for plumbing joints and lightweight electrical connections.
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What is hard soldering?
A similar process to soft soldering, which uses metal alloys of higher melting points, which glow orange when they metals are joined together.
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What is gas welding?
This process uses a gas torch to heat up the metals at the joint.
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What is MIG (metal inert gas) welding?
This process is a form of electric arc welding. An electric spark creates the heat together with a very bright light.
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What is spot welding?
This process is a form of resistance welding, used for the joining of two thin pieces of sheet steel. THe two sheets are put together with copper electrodes and the current passing through them creates heat and bonds them at a tiny spot.
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What is seam welding?
This process is similar to spor welding, except it is continuous. The materials is pressed between two wheels.
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What are knock-down fittings?
Used in flat pack and self-assembly furniture. They include pronged nuts, corner plates and block joints.
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What is polishing?
Polishing is where things such as wax and silicon are applied to wood, metal and plastics.
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How can you finish wood?
Oil, French polish, wood stains, sanding sealer.
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What does oil do to wood?
It brings out the natural grain of the wood.
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What does wood stain do to wood?
They are available in a range of colours. They provide a surface coating, and are usually finished with wax or varnish.
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What does sanding sealer do to wood?
It is applied after wood has been sanded, sealing the wood, so that wax or varnish can be applied.
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How can you finish metals?
Enamel, plastic dip coating, powder coating, anodising, plating, hot-dip galvanising, self-finishing.
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What is enamel?
A powdered glass mixture which forms a coating on the metal.
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What is plastic dip coating?
It involves air being blown through a thermoplastic powder to make it behave like a liquid. The metal is dipped into this and it creates a smooth finish.
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What is powder coating?
It is more sophisticated, where powder is sprayed on to the products.
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What is plating?
It involves using electrolysis to apply a thin layer of a more attractive metal to the larger piece of metal. Also helping if the metal is prone to corrosion.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is meant by Re-use?


Re-using products which have not been used to their full capacity, or finding another purpose for them. Doing this reduces the consumption of the product, the materials and their disposal. For example, bags for life. About using it to its maximum.

Card 3


What is meant by Repair?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is meant by Recycle?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is meant by Rethink?


Preview of the front of card 5
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K. Dodd

Fantastic idea and full of useful facts across a wide spectrum of the product design course


Really nice - a couple of things i'd forgotten about in here!!

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