Product Design Flashcards

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Destructive Testing
Tensile Testing, Hardness Testing, Wear Resistance Testing,Fatigue Testing and Impact Testing.
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Non Destructive Testing
Internal Defects Detection, Acid Picking, Magnetic Testing and Surface Crack Detection.
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Roles in the Design Process
Client, Designer, Inventor, Manufacturers and Users.
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Marketing Mix
People, Promotion, Price, Process, Physical Evidence, Place, Properties, Product and Pleasure.
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Design Methods
To make money, problems with existing Products therefore companies must advance and develops of technology and to help others.
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The Design Process
Identification of a Problem, Brief, Specification, Analysis, Research, Market Research, Development, Manufacture, Testing and Evaluation.
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Patents
UK Patent (New Design, Involve an Inventive Step, Capable of being Manufactured in Industry), Intellectual property rights of ownerships of the design and legal action can be taken on those that attempt to use the design without permission.
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Communication and Representation of Ideas
Mood Boards, Rendering, 2D/2D Sketches, Mock-Ups, Modelling, Orthographic Projection, Prototypes, Presentation and Mood Boards.
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Sustainability and Environmental Concerns- Environmental Legislation
Eco Label, Energy Labelling Directive, End of Life Directive, Packaging Directive, WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive), Restriction of Hazardous Substances.
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Sustainability and Environmental Concerns - R's
Reduce, Reuse, Re think, Recycle, Repair and Refuse.
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Sustainability and Environmental Concerns- Effects in Design
Sustainable Design, Eco Design, Green Design, Green Design Packaging, Sustainable Innovation.
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Sustainability and Environmental Concerns - Eco Design- Jug Kettle
Raw Materials (Extraction and Processing), Manufacture, Distribution, Use, Disposal.
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Sustainability and Environmental Concerns - Cars
Environmental Impact, Green or Eco Design, Hybrid Cars, Hydrogen Fuel Car, Electronic Cars, Bio Diesel/ Oil.
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Safety- Safety Legislation and Manufacturing
Risk Assessments, PPE, Guarding of Machines (Under HSE), Extraction, BSI Kitemark, Personal Protective Clothing Regulation, Health and Safety at Work 1974, COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health).
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Safety- Safety Legislation and the User
Safety of Electrical Consumer Goods (PAT)- Requires main voltage items to be well insulated protect against electrical shock and fire- Electrical Equipment Regulations 1944, Range of consumer protection laws determined and enforced by the Department of Tr
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Human Needs and Human Factors- Ergonomics and Anthropometrics
Ergonomics- "The study of the interaction between the human body, products and environments" and Anthropometrics "Using body sizes to improve the ergonomics of products, systems and environments".
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Human Needs and Human Factors- Adapted Products
(Designing for the Disabled- eg, Kettle)
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Development of Products
Technology Push, Market Pull, Planned Obsolesce and Trends and Fashions.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- The Arts and Crafts Movement
Williams Morris (furniture, wallpaper and textile products such as carpets and soft furnishings), very expensive only wealthy could afford, took inspiration from shapes and organic forms found in furniture and simple and functional.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Art Nouveau
Hector Guimard- Architecture- Paris Underground Ironwork for Metro Station Entrances. America- multi-colouted (Tiffany Glass Ware- lamp-shades). Britain- Charles Rennie Makintosh- Makintosh Chair (rectilinear patterns version of Art Nouveau).
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Deutsche Werkbund
Set up in Germany aim to bring together arts, crafts, industry, education and business and promoted the role of the design in industry. Standardisation and Machines Manufacture of Products (Influence of Modern Movement).
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Bauhaus and Modernisation
Materials, form and colour. 1) Form follows function, 2) Every day objects for every day people, 3) Products for a machine age, 4) Geometrically pure forms (Wassily Chair and Barcelona Chair).
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Art Deco
Fashionable Design Movement (1920-1939), Decorative Style (modern, functional elegant), Affected architecture, interior, graphics, fashion and products. Brought together all the design movements.Eg- Chrysler Building (Sun-burst Motif)
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Art Deco- Clarice Cliff (Ceramics)
Vivid colours, geometric designs, counts forms, angular shapes, bright colours, ravel patterns. Wedgwood- launched their own limited range of Clarice Cliff Pottery expensive pieces and collector items.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Art Deco -Styling Features
1) Zig-zagged, trapezoid and geometric shapes, 2) jumbled shapes(Clarice Cliff ceramics), 3) stepped block forms, 4)sunburnt motifs, 5) chevron patterns.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- 1930's streamlining
Interests in streamlines vehicles, boats and aircrafts therefore began to appear as an aesthetic features.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- 1940s Utility
Utility Furniture, Simple and during war had to rely on imported timber and after the war many homes damaged and needed replacements.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Post War Design
During war many advancements in materials and electronics. 1950s Youth Culture (Polymers- lower cost be bright colours), K3 Kettle- aluminium and streamlined.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Post Modernisation
1) Focus on aesthetics rather than function, 2 Decorative finishes and aesthetics, 3) Design to appeal to fashion, 4) Drawing from influences of media and fashion.
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The Work of Past and Present Designers- Post Modernisation (2)
Memphis- Ettoire Sottas- Carlton Dresser- hardly functional, MDF- Coloured laminate with melamine. Etruscan Chair- Glass, transparent sculptural qualities,uncomfortable hardly functional.
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21st Century Design- Case Study
iPhone- multitouch keyboard, improved through retina display, video/games/social networking/sms, take photos, touch ID (Improve secutiry), increase sales by development from first iPhone to the iPhone 6 and 6 + and i Watch.
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21st Century Design- Case Study (2)
Dyson- James Dyson identified a problem that a bad vacuum cleaners lost sanction as the bag filled and the vacuum cleaner lost suction as the bag gilled as the air was blocked with dust. Therefore produced Dyson Dual Cyclone (no bag so good suction)
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Modern Manufacturing Systems
Kanbans, Just in Time (JIT) EPOS, QRM, FMS, Telematics, Sequencing, MPS.
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Scales of Production
One Off, Batch of 100, Mass Production and Continuous Production.
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Computer Aided Design (CAD)- Rapid Prototyping
Rapid Prototyping: 1) LOM- Layered Object Modelling, 2) FDM- Fused Deposition Modelling, 3)Stereo-lithographic Modelling = all reduce leadtime and allow three dimensional CAD drawing to be downloaded to a machine to create a prototype model eg, Wedgwood
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Computer Aided Design (CAD)- Virtual Reality Modelling
Virtual Reality Modelling- Gives designers the opportunity the opportunity to see and manipulate their designs in a photo- realistic, 3D environment, (Used at Jaguar Cars)- saves money and lead times.
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Computer Aided Design (CAD)- Computer Integrated Manufacture
CIM- Concurrent Manufacture all groups involved in manufacturing work together and all on computer through a data base and updated as work is completed on the product.
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Computer Aided Design (CAD)- Computed Aided Manufacture
CAM- 3D Scanners 1) Contact, 2) Non-Contact. Measures objects using a series of points to create a 3D Digital map drawing. Speeds up the design and development process.
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Robotics
Types of Robot- 1) First Generation, 2) Second Generation, 3) Third Generation. Robot Configurations- 1) Beam Transfer, 2) Arm, 3) Automatic Guided Vehicles. Programming Methods- 1) Teach Pendant, 2) Walkthrough, 3) Off Line.
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Robotics - Advantages
Work in hazardous areas, carry out physically demanding tasks, high levels of accuracy and can work for long periods of time.
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Robotics - Disadvantages
Degrees of freedom, mobility, flexibility, sets up costs and employment issues.
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Plastics- Thermoplastics (repeatedly reheated and remoulded)
ABS, CA,PP,PVC,PC,LDPE,HDPE,PMMA, HIPS, PS, PET, UPVC.
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Plastics- Thermosets (can only be heated and shaped once)
Urea Formaldehyde, Polyester Resins, Melamine Formaldehyde, Epoxy Resins.
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Plastics - Manufacturing with Thermoplastics
Injection Moulding, Blow Moulding, Rotational Moulding, Vacuum Forming, Thermoforming, Line Bending, Plastic Extrusion and Calendaring.
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Plastics-Manufacturing with Thermosets
Compression Moulding
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Composite Materials- produced by mixing two or more different materials to enhance properties from each material-Fibre Reinforced Composites
Natural Woods, Polymers mixed with fibres (GRP, Plastic Laminate, Carbon Fibres), Elastomers Mixed with Fibres, Concretes mixed with fibres and Kevlar.
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Composite Materials- produced by mixing two or more different materials to enhance properties from each material- Sheet Based Composites
Man Made Boards- Plywood, Blockboard, Stirling board, Chipboard, MDF, Hardboard, Hexaboard and Maplex and Metal/Polymer Sheet.
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Composite Materials- produced by mixing two or more different materials to enhance properties from each material- Particle Reinforced Composites
Cermets (Tungsten Carbite, Titanium Carbite, Filament-Reinforced Ceramics, Tungsten Mesh and Ceramics, Ziconoia Reinforced with Titanium), Concretes and Tarmac.
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Metals- Ferrous and Non Ferrous
Ferrous- Cast Irons, Steels, Mild Steel, Medium Carbon Steel, High Carbon Steel. Non Ferrous Metals- Alluvium, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Gold.
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Metals- Ferrous and Non Ferrous Alloys
Alloys- Ferrous Alloys- Stainless Steel, High Speed Steel, Die tool Steel and High Tensile Steels. Non-Ferrous Alloys- Brass, Bronze and Duralumin.
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Processing Metals- Wasting Processes
Wasting Processes (Sawing and Filing, Drilling and Milling,Grinding and Sanding,Blanking and Piercing and Laser Cutting)
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Processing Metals- Fabrication
Fabrication (Bolts and Screws, Welding, Brazing, Soldering, Adhesives)
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Processing Metals- Redistribution
Redistribution- Casting (Sand, Die- Gravity, Low Pressure, High Pressure), Forging (cold, hot, drop) and Hot Pressing. Forming- (Press forming, embossing and coining) and Sintering.
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Woods
Hardwoods- Oak, Ash, Beech, Teak, Walnut, Yew. Softwoods- Scots Pine, Spruce, Douglas Fir.
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Finishing Materials- Plastics
Plastics- Self Finishing, Self Coloured and Textures.
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Finishing Materials- Papers and Cards
Varnishes and Laminating.
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Finishing Materials- Woods
Tanalising, Water Soluble Preservatives, Tar-Oil Preservatives, Organic Solvent Preservatives.
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Finishing Materials- Metals
Natural Barriers (Blueing), Applied Barriers (Electro-Plating, Anodising, Zinc Plating, Tin Plating, Enamelling)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Internal Defects Detection, Acid Picking, Magnetic Testing and Surface Crack Detection.

Back

Non Destructive Testing

Card 3

Front

Client, Designer, Inventor, Manufacturers and Users.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

People, Promotion, Price, Process, Physical Evidence, Place, Properties, Product and Pleasure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

To make money, problems with existing Products therefore companies must advance and develops of technology and to help others.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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