Product Design

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What are thermochromic inks, and list their properties?
SMART MATERIALS - 1 THERMOCHROMIC INKS Properties of Thermochromic Inks: They come in a range of colours. They change colour as the temperature goes up or down. Expensive compared to normal inks to buy. They can be applied to most surfaces.
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What is quality assurance?
Administrative system (paper work). Includes: staff training, surveying customers regarding the quality of the product. Monitoring workers checking the quality of manufacture on the production line.
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What is quality control?
Quality checks by the workers on the production line. Testing the product to see that it works properly. Visual checks and computer / sensor checks.
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List the products and quality standards of a chair.
The following quality checks were made on the chair whilst being manufactured. Stability, must not topple over. Joints and fixings, strong and do not break. Quality of finish, colour is high quality and finish smooth and polished. Paint, Covers all
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What is tolerance? (And give an example)
Checking that a product is manufactured within an upper and lower limit. Example: Thousands of steel bolts are manufactured by a company. Samples are check that they are the correct size. Each bolt must fall within a maximum and minimum length. The t
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What is the British Standards Institute kite mark?
Can be stamped on products tested to high British standards. Regarded as a Quality and Safety mark.
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What is the confromite European symbol?
Stamped on products tested to the minimum standard set by the EEC. Applies to products in the European Community Manufacturers must ensure that their products at least meet these minimum standards or risk having their products removed from the shelve
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How does the British Standards Institue kite mark differ to the confromite European symbol?
To achieve the British Standards Institute Kite Mark, high standards of manufacture, safety and quality must be reached and maintained. However, the Conformite European Symbol can be applied to products reaching minimum European standards.
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What are the materials used for a typical card packaging?
Box - quality card - 1000 microns (1mm), 920gsm. Clear window - Polypropylene, to enable viewing of the products. Plastic insert - high impact polystyrene (HIPS), to hold the contents securely in position.
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What are alternative materials for packaging?
Expanded Polypropylene is a quality protective insert for packaging.Quality white cardboard, EPP.
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What are other materials for packaging?
Polypropelene window, (HIPS) high impact polystyrene, 1000 micron card.
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What are the functions of packaging?
To protect a product from damage or contamination. Protection during Transport and Ease of Transport. To keep the product together, to contain it (i.e. So that it does not spill). To identify the product. Name and product clearly identified. Stackin
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What are raw materials?
They are basic materials not ready for the manufacture of products. Raw materials have not been machined / processed into standard stock sizes, shapes / forms, that can be used by manufacturing industry, on a production line.
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Why are raw materials processed into standard forms?
They can be transported and handled more easily than raw materials. Standard forms and sizes are cheaper than special sizes, because they are processed in large quantities. Designers use readily available standard stock sizes when designing products.
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What are the standard stock sizes for wood?
Natural woods are supplied in standard stock sizes. Different sections are available including: rectangular, square and round. .
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What are moulds?
MOULDS Complicated sections are called moulds. They are often used when adding decoration
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What are the standard stock sizes of metals?
Some common sections are: Flat, square, hexagonal, angle iron, hexagonal tubes, square tubes and round tubes.Tubes are lighter than solid sections, making them ideal for products such as bicycle frames and other frameworks e.g. scaffolding.
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What is copyright?
Copyright aims to protect people, companies and organisations that produce creative and artistic work. An author can claim copyright protection for his/her books or a song writer can protect his/her songs. In order to claim copyright, it is essential
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What is a registered trademark?
A trademark is a symbol/sign that identifies your products or services. A trademark can be words or pictures or a combination of both. A fee is paid to the Intellectual Property Office, who decide whether a symbol/logo can be regarded as a protected
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What is patent?
A patent protects a person or company that invents something new. If you invent a new type of pen, you should patent your design. This should prevent anyone or another company from stealing your idea, manufacturing it and making money for themselves.
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What is brand identity? (I)
When a company or a product achieves ‘brand’ status, it normally means that it has been extremely successful. Also the logo / symbol / image built up by a successful company, can become a brand in its own right. Meanings, feelings and values are usua
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What is brand identity? (II)
Brand - associated with: Looks (aesthetics), style, Colour scheme, Company name, Product functions, Symbol / logo, customers feelings about the product, Trusted by the general public.
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What is a sustainable material?
A sustainable material is a material that can be renewed, such as natural wood - trees can be grown to replace ones cut down and processed into products.
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What does the sustainable forest symbol mean?
Card packaging with this symbol, means that the materials used to make the packaging, have been harvested from sustainable forests. This means that the forest is managed in such a way that the trees are replanted so that trees that are cut down are r
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What is the forest stewardship council?
FSC The Forest Stewardship Council promotes the responsible management of forests - sustainable forestry. The logo guarantees that paper and card has been purchased from responsible forest operations (sustainable forestry).
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What is a barcode? (I)
A barcode is a number of vertical black strips, usually forming a rectangular shape (see example below). The strips are a graphical method of representing numbers. Computer system can read barcodes more efficiently than optically reading numbers and
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What is a barcode? (II)
Barcodes are used to control the manufacturing process on the production line. Computer systems use barcode technology to keep track of products as they are manufactured and progress down the production line. They play an important role in distribut
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What is a product life cycle?
When designing and manufacturing a product, it is important to consider its life cycle. Life cycle is the time from a product’s manufacture, to its recycling or disposal, at the end of its useful life. Customers often expect products to be designed
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What is product life cycle assessment?
This is when a designer / manufacturer plans every stage of making a product, so that the product is as environmentally friendly as possible. Including, using recycled materials and renewable energy during manufacturing. PLUS The designer / manufact
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Why are models and prototypes important? (I)
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Why are models and protostypes important? (II)
Large companies such as BMW still make full size clay models, made to look realistic. This helps them to design and develop top class cars. A full size clay model of a BMW car. Manufactured to help the designers further develop the car
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What are biodegradeable packaging plastics?
Polymers / plastics have a reputation of being environmentally unfriendly. They take years and in some cases centuries to decay. However, plastic bags made from Polylactide (PLA) take only five years to decompose. Containers such as drinking bottles
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Biodegradeable packaging plastics from cornstarch.
(POLYLACTIDE) Corn starch is a renewable material, as it is produced from plants and NOT from oil. It is biodegradable / compostable, decomposing over a short period of time. Traditional plastic can take centuries to decompose, polluting the surround
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What is anthropometrics?
The study of the human body and its movement, often involving research into measurements relating to people. It also involves collecting statistics or measurements relevant to the human body, called Anthropometric Data.
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What is ergonomics?
The study of people and their relationship with the environment around them. When anthropometric data (measurements / statistics) is applied to a product, e.g. measurements of the hand are used to design the shape and size of a handle, this is ergono
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What are the anthropometrics applied to a hair dryer?
Anthropometric data (measurements) are used to determine the shape of handle and distance to be held from head. Designed for average size hand. The length of lead is determined from anthropometric data (length of average arms and average height of us
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What is CAD?
3D design software such as AutoCAD or Sketchup, allow the designer to draw a product in detail. Products can be designed and modified quickly. CAD allows for the testing of prototypes during the design process, without the need to make it.
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What is CAM?
Once a prototype design has been produced, it can be manufactured on a CNC machine or Rapid Prototyping machine. Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) has meant that products and components can be made repeatedly to the same high standard. Accuracy of mac
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What is advertising?
Advertising draws the attention of potential consumers to a product. Persuades potential customers to buy the product. Informs potential customers of the products functions and features. Creates a demand for a product. Good advertising may create a
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What are the methods of advertising?
TV - commercials between programmes. Product placement in TV programmes. Audio advertisements on the radio. Printed advertisements in a newspaper or magazine. Internet, such as GoogleAds. Sports sponsorship, such as Formula One Racing. Direct Market
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How is the mini cooper advertised?
The Mini Cooper seen in many films, including the 1960s film called ‘The Italian Job’. This is an example of product placement. Film was extremely successful and still popular today, continuing to advertise the Mini Cooper. Mini Cooper also advertise
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What are the environmental and customers isuues? (I)
Is the product made from recycled materials? Has recycled packaging been used? Has biodegradable packaging been used? Are the materials used in the product and packaging sustainable? Has it been manufactured in a factory that uses renewable energy o
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What are the environmental and customers isuues? (II)
Does the manufacturer supply refills rather than expecting its customers to buy full products with wasteful packaging? Can the product be recycled at the end of its life cycle or is it going to be ‘dumped’? Is the manufacturer trying to reduce its ca
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What are hardwoods?
Sometimes called broad-leaf trees. Lose their leaves seasonally, in winter. Hardwoods tend to be harder than softwoods (with the exception of Balsa Wood). They have a wider variety of colour and texture than softwoods. Hard woods tend to be more expe
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Light tan in colour and straight grained. High quality timber. Moderately hard to work with handtools. Tools should be kept sharp. Produces a high quality finish with wax, furniture oil and varnish. Uses include; quality furniture, cabinet making and
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Grey to brown colour with relatively straight grain. Excellent timber. Tough and can be worked reasonably easily with hand tools. Easy to carve and can be smoothed to a highly polished finish. Used in solid and veneer form for high-class furniture,
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Unlike most hardwoods. Fast growing. Reaches maturity in just five to seven years. Very soft and easy to work with tools. Pale in colour and extremely light to carry/transport. Extremely popular as a material for model making. Also used occasionally
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Colour - cream to pale tan. Tough, flexible and straight grained, very good steam bending qualities. Can be shaped and formed well with handtools. A smooth finish can be achieved and stains well. Used for cabinet making, boats and handles of tools. A
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Medium to dark brown in colour. Relatively easy to work with hand tools and machinery. Produces a good quality finish with glass paper. Takes varnish well. Wide range of uses including furniture and boat building. Used widely as veneer.
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Light brown / pale brown in colour. Can be difficult to work with handtools, due to awkward grain. Can be worked to a fine finish. Looks particularly good with a waxed finish. Used in cabinet making, turns quite well and is used as veneer, to provide
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Pale white to pink brown in colour. Very good for steam bending. It can be worked reasonably well with handtools and machinery. Used for quality furniture, handles, manufacturing chairs and good for wood turning. Often used as a facing for plywood.
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What are softwoods?
Softwoods are from trees that have needles / exposed seeds, not leaves. They grow quickly, compared to most hardwoods. When sawn and planed they tend to be light/pale in colour. Softwoods also tend to be cheaper than hardwoods. Softwoods are used by
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What are thermosetting plastics?
Once heated and moulded, these plastics cannot be reheated and remoulded. The molecules of these plastics are cross linked in three dimensions and this is why they cannot be reshaped or recycled. The bond between the molecules is very strong.
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What are thermoplastics?
These plastics can be re-heated and re-shaped in various ways. They become mouldable after reheating as they do not undergo significant chemical change. Reheating and shaping can be repeated. The bond between the molecules is weak and becomes weaker
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What is BIOPOL biodegradeable plastic? List examples.
Biopol is the brand name for PHB. It is an environmentally friendly polymer. It is processed through the fermentation of corn and soya. Examples include: disposable cups, disposable razors, disposable knives and forks and shampoo bottles.
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List the advantages and disadvantages of BIOPOL.
ADVANTAGES OF BIOPOL Environmentally friendly, does not cause pollution. Biopol products degrade after a few months in soil. Biopol is a completely non-toxic material. It is manufactured from a renewable source (plants). DISADVANTAGES OF BIOPOL More
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is quality assurance?


Administrative system (paper work). Includes: staff training, surveying customers regarding the quality of the product. Monitoring workers checking the quality of manufacture on the production line.

Card 3


What is quality control?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


List the products and quality standards of a chair.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is tolerance? (And give an example)


Preview of the front of card 5
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