Product Design

  • Created by: Annagc
  • Created on: 20-06-17 16:26
Market Pull
When something is designed to satisfy a customers wants and needs
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Technology push
Using new technology to develop new products or improve existing ones
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Arts and Crafts
Based on patters in nature. Furniture is angular and upright
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Art Nouveau
Flowing and curvy. Uses floral and insect motifs
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Art Deco
Bold colours, geometric, zigzag, sunburst motifs
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Designed for their function not appearance. Used chrome tubing and black leather
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De Stijl
Simple shapes and primary colours
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Style is the starting point, Memphis movement, extreme minilamism
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Disabled users
Braille, big buttons, visible smoke alarm signals, pictures in instructions, wheelchair access
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Cultural and religious values
Dietary needs, Japanese low table, modest clothing, Chinese uses red
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Age groups
small parts, fastenings and packaging, easy to grip handles
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How easy and comfortable a product is to use
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Measurements taken to ensure it is the right size and shape for the user
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Design brief
what the product is and why, how it will be used, who it is for
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Market research
questionnaires and interviews to see what your target group wants
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Product analysis
Examine or disassemble a current product to see how it is made and the good and bad features
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Design Specification
Conditions that the product must meet taking into account your research
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What should the design specification include?
Aesthetics, consumer, size, function, quality, cost, environment, safety, materials, sustainability
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Systems approach
Breaking down the design process into stages and doing them in order
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Empirical problem solving
Using trial and error by making different prototypes until one works well then developing that one
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Intuitive design
Designers with experience make guesses about what will work well
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CAD CAM in modelling
You can make virtual models and easily manipulate them. It is also rapid prototyping
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Designs for mass production
Available materials, affordable, standard size components, standard tools, don't need skilled workers
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Distinctive logos, words or slogans that identify a company or product
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Allow the inventor to stop others from making, using or selling the invention
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Any designs you produce are automatically copyrighted
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Registered Design
Protects a new design's shape and appearance. It only applies to the look of the product not the way it works
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ISO 9000
An international standard of quality management award to top companies
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Gantt chart
A chart that shows how long each stage will take
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Without any equipment
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Isometric drawing
It is drawn at 30 degrees
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Draw a box and add or take away parts until you get the right shape
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Wireframe Drawings
You don't shade so you can see all faces
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Vanishing point
When all the lines meet at this point
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Exploded view
Draw each separate part and move it out. Used in flat pack furniture intructions
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Sectional drawing
what a product would look like if you cut it in two
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Plan view
Drawn from above. They are used for buildings
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Orthographic Projection
The front view, plan view and end view and drawn to scale
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Helps designers model and change designs quickly and experiment with colours
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Makes the product neatly fit together and has to be strong enough not to collapse when stacked on top of each other
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Cardboard, bubble wrap, air pillows prevent it being broken. It is also for security so anti-theft devices, ink and tamper evident seals are used
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Airtight packaging for food, drink and toothpaste
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Environmental impact of packaging
Crude oil is a finite resource, energy is used which causes global warming, in landfill it is non-biodegradable
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Labelling - X symbol with a small h
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Labelling - Flame
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Labelling - bomb
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Labelling - X with a small i
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Labelling - Dead fish
Environmental hazard
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British Standards institution
Awards products with a kitemark if they have met standards for quality of design
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CE symbol
A product has met EU standards for safety
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What is on a label?
Use, how to maintain it, how to store it, safety information
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Recyclable symbol with a three in the centre
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Recyclable symbol with a 6
Polystyrene product
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Food packaging
Vegetarian symbol, allergy problems, health rating
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Aiming it at a target group
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Memorable graphics, logo, builds up a brand image
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Types of advertising
TV, cinema, radio, leaflets, internet popups, billboards, sponsoring, paying an influential person to speak about it
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Point of sale promotions
Signs that stick out in shop aisles or hand above the product
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Promotion tactics
Free samples and demonstrations
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Withstand force, surfboard doesn't bend, drill bit resists twisting force
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Ability to withstand scratching, rubbing or denting. Important for tools that cut
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A material that is malleable or ductile
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Can't withstand much stretching eg glass
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It can absorb impacts without snapping eg armour
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Able to withstand repeated use and are resistant to corrosion
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Functional requirements
What demands will be made on the material, if it is for outdoor or indoor use and does it need to fit with the environment
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If the size you need a standard size or will it have to be specially made
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Production method
The material must be suitable for the intended production method and vice versa
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The size of your product will depend on *** expensive the material you use is
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Stages of making paper
Trees are cut down, the bark is stripped off, the wood is cut up by a chipper, they are heated and turn to pulp, the pulp is washed and bleached to make it white then pressed between roller, dried and cut to size
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Cartridge paper
High quality and textured surface, good for sketching
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Layout paper
Strong, thin and translucent
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Grid paper
Used for orthographic drawings
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Tracing paper
Translucent and used for copying images
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What is the minimum weight for card?
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Solid white board
High quality bleached surface, used for printing and primary packaging
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Corrugated board
Used in secondary packaging, made of fluted inner core between two outer layers
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Duplex paper
Different colours and texture on each side
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Combination of paper and aluminium foil
Used for food packaging to keep flavours in and air out
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Foam core board
Laminating polystyrene foam between card. It's stiff but lightweight. Used for mounting posters and making models
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Paper coated with polythene
Waterproof so can be used for paper cups
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Fast growing so are cheap. Scots pine is yellow with brown streaks - strong but knotty, used for fences and cheap furniture. Parana pine is yellow with red streaks - hard and expensive, used for interior doors and stairs
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Mahogany is red-brown - good quality furniture, Teak is golden brown - weather-resistant so used for garden furniture, Ash is pale cream - tough so used for tool handles, Beech is pinkish-brown - hard but can be bent with steam so used for chairs
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Stages of wood being felled
Cut down, bark is removed, seasoned by drying it to make it stronger and less likely to rot or twist
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Planned Square edge
Rough surface are shaved off with an electric planer
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Rough sawn
Not smoothed so it is cheaper and used in construction where it won't be seen
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Hardwood strips that come in a range of cross sections, used for skirting boards, door frames and picture frames
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Enhances the appearance of it's grain. They don't protect the wood
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Maintains a wood's natural appearance
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Used to colour and protect wood. Emulsion paints aren't water proof so don't protect the wood. polyurethane is waterproof
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Polyurethane varnish
Seal and protect wood and give it a smooth surface finish
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Holes are punched into it so it's ready to put hooks in or attaching to shelves
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What is the standard size for a piece of wood?
2440mm by 1220mm
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Contains iron
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Cast iron
Brittle, used for car brakes discs and manhole covers
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Mild Steel
Strong and cheap but rusts easily, used for car bodies, screws, nails
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Stainless steel
Hard, won't rust, used for surgical equipment, sinks, kettles, cutlery
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Lightweight, resistant to corrosion, used for aeroplane bodies, cans, ladders
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Not strong, resists corrosion, used for coating steel
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Soft, ductile, conducts electricity, used for wires, pipes and pans
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Strong, malleable, conducts electricity, used for door handles, electrical parts
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Soft, conducts electricity used for jewellery and expensive cutlery
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Soft, used for jewellery, small ornaments
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Extracting metals
Extracted, crushed and heated, refined to get rid of impurities, the molten metal is cast
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Heating the metal and leaving it to cool slowly. It is softer, more ductile and less brittle
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Heating and rapidly cooling so it is harder
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It is cleaned and gently heated and it changes colour depending on how tough it's become
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Painting for protection
Red oxide or zinc chromate is used as a primer. Then you paint a top coat which can make it durable and weather proof
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Plastic coating
A metal is heated in an oven and then plunged into fluidised powder. The metal is put back in the oven where the plastic fuses to the surface
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An object is put in a bath of chemicals including the dissolved corrosion resistant material and an electric current makes the corrosion resistant material solidify onto the object
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A thin layer of cellulose, gum or vanish is applied to give a transparent coating. It is used on jewellery
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Are moulded by heating and can be remoulded if heated agai
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Hard, transparent and flexible. Used for packaging and projector transparencies
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Hard and shiny, resists weather well. Used for motorcycle helmet visors, baths, signs
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Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
Soft and flexible, used for carrier bags and to laminate paper
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High density polyethylene (HDPE)
Stiff and strong but lightweight. Used for washing baskets, folding chairs
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Polyesters eg polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
Light, strong, and tough. Used for drink bottles and fibres for clothes
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Expanded polystyrene eg STYROFOAM
White, lightweight, crumbly, used in packaging to protect and insulate, used for models
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High impact polystyrene (HIPS)
Rigid and cheap, used for vacuum forming and fabricating boxes like CD cases
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Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Brittle, cheap and durable. Used for blister packs, window frames, vinyl records
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Once they have been moulded they cannot be remoulded
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Epoxy resin ( ER)
Rigid, durable, corrosion resistant. Used for circuit boards and wind turbine blades
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Urea Formaldehyde (UF)
Hard, brittle and good electrical insulator. Used for plug sockets and cupboard handles
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Melamine Formaldehyde (MF)
Strong and scratch proof, used to laminate chipboard and for plates and bowls
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Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)
Very strong, used for racing car bodies and light aeroplanes
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How is plastic made?
Oil is extracted, it is heated and separates by fractional distillation
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Help the plastic flow when it's melted and less brittle
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Make the plastic stronger, harder and more rigid
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Blowing agents
Turn plastic into foam to make it lighter and a better insulator
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Plastic finishes
Wet and dry paper or a buffing machine to remove scratches
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Earthenware clay
Cheap and easily available, used for titles, pots and some tableware
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Stoneware clays
Better quality clay, whitish in colour, used for tableware
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China clay
Bright white, hard, used for porcelain and ornaments
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St. Thomas Clay
Lots of grog, used for hand built sculptures and pots
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Watered down clay used to stick bits of clay together
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Shiny outer coating is applied and the ceramic is re-fired
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Plaster of Paris
White and easily scratched used for sculptures and to make casts for broken bones
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Grey and hard, used for buildings
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Smooth, hard and transparent, made by melting sand
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Ceramics in industry
Resist high temperature - light bulbs, heat shield titles on rockets. Electrical insulators - used to separate electrical power lines. Sharp - knives
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Beryllium oxide-based ceramics
High melting point so can be used in nuclear reactors
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Aluminium oxide and boron carbide
Very hard so are used in armour
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The sheep is sheered, cleaned to remove grease and sweat. The fibres are combed which is called carding
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From the stalk of a flax plant, combs remove the seeds and leaves (ripling) , soaking loosens the bark (retting), bark is removed (scutching), carding. Absorbent and comfortable but it creases and is flammable.
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From seed pods of the cotton plant, plants are treated with chemicals so leaves fall off, fibres are cleaned, seeds are removed, carding. Cheap and comfortable but weak when wet and creases
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From the cocoon made by silk worms, the gum is softened by soaking in warm water, the filament is unwound (reeling). It is strong ans smooth but doesn't wash well and is expensive.
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Producing Polyester, LYCRA and acrylic
Crude oil is heated, some of the monomers are made into monomers. The fibres are made by melting the polymer and forcing it through tiny holes. It is then cooled to form long filaments which are then made into yarn.
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Producing nylon
Coal is carbonised, it is heated in a container to make coal tar. The monomers are made into polymers to form nylon filaments which are made into yarn
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Woven fabrics
Interlacing two sets of yarn. They don't stretch, strong, flat and smooth
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Knitted fabrics
Interlocking one or more yarns together using loops. They insulate by trapping air and can stretch
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Bonded fabrics
Non woven webs made from synthetic fibres glued together. They don;t fray but they aren't stretchy or strong
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Good elasticity and dries quickly but isn't absorbent. Used in sportswear and bedsheets
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Strong and warm but melts as it burns. Used for sportswear and bedsheets
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Warm and cheap but not very absorbent. Used in jumpers and fake fur
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Elastic and lightweight but not absorbent and flammable. Mixed with other yarns to give stretch
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Very lightweight and breathable but expensive. Used in sportswear and outdoor wear
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Blending fibres within yarn
Two or more different fibres are combined to produce yarn. This is woven or knitted to make a fabric
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Mixing yarn
When a fabric is made up of two or more different types of yarn. They can be knitted or woven together.
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Blended fabric properties
Cotton and polyester fibres are stronger, less absorbent, soft, less creasing, doesn't shrink, highly flammable
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Properties of a mix of yarn
Elastane mixed with cotton, strong, stretches, comfortable , resists creasing, can be dyed
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Flame retardance
Chemicals applied to fibres like night clothes, racing drivers overalls, that are fire resistant
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Water resistance
Silicones are applied to the surface. Nylon is often made water resistant
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Stain resistance
A mixture of silicone and fluorine or a teflon coating. They stop grease and dirt penetrating through
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Creases resistance
Often given to cotton and linen
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Shrink resistance
Often given to wool to prevent the scales from locking together
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Source of energy found in honey and fruit. Used as a preservative in jam, sweeten food, caramelises when heated
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Complex sugar that has to be broken down to release the energy, found in potatoes and flour
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Helps to have a healthy digestive system, found in fruit, vegetables, bran, beans and pasta
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Needed to build and repair muscles, tissues and organs. Found in meat, fish, milk, beans and eggs
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Concentrated energy source, insulation. Found in butter, lard, oils. They enrich sources and make them thicker and taste better
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Adds flavour and colour, rubbed into flour to make pastry and biscuits short
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Added as a thickening agent eg in sauces
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Glazing, coating like breadcrumbs, binding eg mince in burgers, aeration in cakes, thickening eg in quiche, emulsification eg in salad dressings
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Vitamin A
Made from retinol, found in butter, oily fish and eggs, needed for good eyesight and the growth of tissues
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Vitamin B
Found in cereals, peas, pulses, dairy, meat and fish. Helps with growth, energy and the repair of tissues
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Vitamin C
Known as ascorbic acid. Found in citrus fruits, green vegetables, potatoes. Helps the body absorb calcium and iron and keep blood vessels healthy and heal wounds
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Vitamin D
Known as calciferol, found in oily fish and eggs. Helps the body absorb calcium
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Found in milk, vegetables and white bread. Needed for strong bones and teeth, healthy nerves and muscles
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Found in dark green vegetables and meat, Needed to form haemoglobin which allows red blood cells to carry oxygen
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Process of meat for sale
Slaughter, skin and organs removed and checked for disease, the carcass is treated with steam or acid to kill bacteria, the carcass is cut up into smaller pieces and chilled
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Harvesting fruit and vegetables
Soil and stones are removed, sometimes it is washed, it is sorted and graded and sent to sellers
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Producing flour
Grain is harvested and graded then purified, it is ground into flour, treated with bleach to lighten the flour, vitamins and sometimes baking powder are added
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Sugar production
Beets are washed and sliced then soaked in hot water, impurities are removed from the solution, water is evaporated and the sugar crystallises, the crystals are sieved
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Milk production
Cows are milked, it is pasteurised to kill bacteria, cream forms on the top of the milk, to make butter milk or cream is churned
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Ingredients dissolve in a liquid
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When a solid ingredient are added to a liquid but doesn't dissolve
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Thick solution in between liquid and solid
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When oily and watery liquids mix together and the droplets of one spread out through the other
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Traps air
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Changes the texture
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Slicing and grating
Can change the way food cooks
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Electronic switches, a small current is used to switch on a large current
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They store charge
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Converts electrical energy into small movements in a straight line egto open a switch
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Integrated circuits
Tiny electrical circuits with many components eg musical greeting cards and calculators
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Rack and pinion gears
Turns rotatory motion into linear motion. The pinion turns to more the rack. It is used in railways.
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A worm drive and worm wheel
The worm drive only has one tooth but eh worm wheel has many so it will turn much slower. It is used for tightening guitar strings.
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Bevel gears
The teeth and angled at 45 degrees so the gears fit together at right angles
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First class levers
Have a pivot between the effort and the load
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Second class levers
Have a pivot at one end of the lever and the effort is at the other end
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Third class lever
The effort is between the load and pivot
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One pulley changes the direction of the force required. Two or more makes it feel lighter than it is.
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Transfer forces and change the direction of motion, a bell crank changes the direction of the force by 90 degrees
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Pneumatic cylinders
Compressed air pushes a piston down a cylinder, air pressure is converted into linear movement
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Chain and sprocket
Two sprockets and linked with a chain, they are used in bikes
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Double sided sticky pad
Permanent - sticks things together quickly
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Ratchet rivets
Permanent - join sheets of corrugated plastic
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Snap rivets
Permanent - plastic clips to join sheet material together
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Temporary fixings
Velcro pads, magnets, press stud fastenings, hooks, treasury tags, staples, drawing pins, prong paper fasteners
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Comb binding
Punch holes in sheets then put a plastic comb in, you can add or remove pages, the book will open flat
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Spiral bindings
A plastic coil is inserted into the spine
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Saddle stitching
Double pages are folded and stapled, it won't open as flat
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Perfect binding
Pages are folded in sections which are then glued to the spine, you can bind lots of sheets but it won't open flat
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Thread sewing
It is expensive, the pages are sewn together in sections then a softer cover is glued on. The pages are less likely to come loose
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Thread sewn books but with a hard cover
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Standard components
Common fixings and parts that manufacturers buy instead of manufacturing themselves
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Wood screws
The thread pulls it into the wood . The heads available are round, countersunk, slotted and cross
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Self tapping screws
Hardened threads and cut their own threaded holes in hard materials
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Machine screws
Straight shank and are used with washers and nuts
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Square, round or hexagonal heads and are tightened with spanners
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Knock down fittings
Blocks and brackets which mean you can assemble or take apart the furniture. They are fast but not as strong. Used in cheap flat pack furniture
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Metal peg which is inserted into the metal, then the longer side is flattened into the shape if another head
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Cornstarch polymer
Renewable, biodegradable, more sustainable, less waste. Used for clear flexible sandwich bags and cups
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Precious metal clay
Particles of metal into a binding a material, You can easily shape the clay, when heated the metal fuses together and creates a solid metal object
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Thermochromic materials
Change colour when heated, warning patches eg baby spoons which is cheaper and more reliable then electronic warnings. Thermochromic dyes can be put into textiles
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Quantum tunnelling composite
A polymer which conducts electricity when squashed. They are put into textiles to control integrated electronics
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Shape memory alloys
E.g Nitinol, easily shaped when cool, return to remembered shape when heated
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Self cleaning glass, self cleaning fabrics, antibacterial fabrics
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Integrated electronics
E.g mp3 players in clothes, they are washable, they can be used for sensors in clothes that monitor heart rate and blood pressure
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Protective clothing
Face mask, goggles, gloves, apron, face shield
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Tools and machinery safety
Sleeves rolled back, ties tucked in, apron strings tucked in, hair tied back, don't leave machines unattended, you must be taught how to operate a machine, emergency off button, don't change parts unless it is isolated from the mains
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Materials and waste safety
Only use hazardous materials when necessary, check materials are safe to use, store them safely e.g food and flammable liquid, dispose of waste properly so it doesn't harm the environment
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Risk assesment
Identify hazards, precautions, warning signs, barriers
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Consumer Protection Act
Designer's responsibility to ensure it doesn't case unnecessary danger, manufacturer's responsibility to ensure it isn't contaminated safety warnings, recalled if dangerous
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Tests to ensure safety
Research and test materials, standard components, prototypes, get electrical items PAT tested, test using CAD software
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An independent company that judges products
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Consumer Protection From Unfair Trading Regulations
Any claims about a product must be true
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General Product Safety Regulations
Nobody can put a product on the market unless it's safe
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Sale of Goods Act
Products perform as you would reasonable expect and they last a reasonable length of time
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Organisations that set standards for safety
British standards institution, International organisation for standardisation
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Quality control check
It does the job, meets standrads from institutions, customer is happy, can be manufactured consistently
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Not causing permanent damage to the environment and not using up it's finite resources
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Products that aren't designed to last e.g razor or mobile phone
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Carbon footprint
Amount of greenhouse gas released by making or using something
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The 6 R's
Repair, reuse, recycle, rethink, reduce, refuse
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They will rot away naturally
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Stages of recycling
Sorted into categories, water is added to paper which is de-inked. Gladd and metal are crushed, heated and melted
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The workers in developing countries are paid fairly and have good working conditions.
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Panel saw
For wood
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Tenon saw
For wood
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Metals and plasticsCoping saw
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Coping saw
Cutting curves in wood or plastic
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Circular saws and saw benches
Round blades used to cut wood and boards. Straight cuts only
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Band saws
Blades in long and flexible loops, straight or curved cuts, usually used on wood
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Jig saw
Interchangeable blades and variable speeds, straight or curved cuts but it is slow
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Used to make a pilot hole
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Types of drills
Brace, hand drill, pillar drill
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Twist bits
Drill small holes in wood, metal or plastic
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Flat bits
Used on wood to drill large flat bottomed holes
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Countersink bits
Widen the opening to an existing hole
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Hand tools
Wood chisels, cold chisels, gougers, bench planes, files
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A planer and thicknesser
Remove material from the surface of a piece of wood to give it a consistent cross section
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Milling machine
Removes one thin layer of a material at a time to get the right shape and to make it flat, they are very accurate
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Bench grinder
Abrasive wheels to remove metal for shaping and finishing
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Cut and shape materials to produce rounded objects
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Sheet metal folder
Feed the metal in flat, make one fold then move the material through for the next fold
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Work hardening
Thick metals are heated then cooled so they are soft enough to bend on a jig, it might have to be repeated
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Iron and steel being forged
Air is blown on the fire, when the metal is hot enough to have softened it is taken out and hammered into shape on an anvil. It has to be reheated and cooled to smooth the metal out
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Gluing thin strips of material together, wood laminating is used for, rocking chair runners, table legs, roof beams
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Line bending
Rest the sheet on two bars and the element heats the plastic and it will bend
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Press moulding
Thermosetting plastic powder is put into a female mould, a former (male mould) is pressed onto it
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Vacuum forming
A mould is put onto the vacuum bed, thermoplastic is clamped over the bed and heated until soft, the bed is lifted close to the heated plastic, air is sucked from under the plastic so air pressure from the outside of the mould forces the plastic onto
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Blow moulding
Softened plastic is put in the solid mould, air is injected in which forced the plastic to expand to the shape of the mould, it is used for bottles and containers
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Die casting
The material is melted and poured into the mould, if it is cold-poured it can harden through a chemical reaction
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Injection moulding
The molten material is forced into the mould, a screw moves the plastic along towards the mould, it is an automatic and continuous process
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Molten material is forced through a die, it produces a long continuous *****, used for plastic covered wire, edgings
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One off production
Labour intensive, skilled workforce, expensive
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Batch production
Specific quantity is made, batches are repeated if necessary, machinery and workforce need to be flexible, down time wastes money
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Mass production
It runs all the time, it would be too expensive to keep stopping and starting, it's expensive but very efficient and the cost per item is cheap
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Just in Time
The manufacturer gets the materials and components delivered as they're needed and uses them as soon as they're delivered.Saves on storage costs, less money tied up in materials, unsold finished products don't pile up
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A collection of parts and processes that work together in order to do a particular function
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Stages in a manufacturing system
Input:materials, tools, equipment, Process: what happens to the input, Output: product
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Data transfer
Electronic data interchange is the direct transfer of information from one computer to another, so designing and manufacturing can be done in different locations
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Software sharing
A programme can be put on a network so all the computers connected to the network can access the programme without installing it on each machine. So design files can be opened and edited on many machines
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Stock Control
Computers can record how much stock is left, important in JIT production, can use systems that automatically order components when they are needed
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Video Conferencing
Manufacturers can improve communication with suppliers and designers, it can be used to view manufacturing processes
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Parts of a efficient manufacturing system
Trained and organised workforce, specialised buildings, good communication systems, organisation of tools and materials, efficient design and production processes, systems of disposal, risk assesment
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Good layout leads to quality
Finishing isn't near dirty work areas, short distances to travel prevent damage, finished product should be in a dispatch area
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Materials and equipment layout
Controls are easy to reach and labelled, materials are in a logical order, barcodes help control stock levels, materials stored to avoid contamination
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What does CAD involve?
Designing products on a computer rather than with pencil and paper
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2D Drawing software
Adobe, Illustrator, ArtCAM
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3D modelling software
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What does computer numerically controlled mean?
The machine can follow x,y,z coordinates and move tools to cut out or build up the design
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CNC routers
Cut out 2D or 3D shapes from a block of material, they can also engrave things, they can be used on plastic, metal and wood
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Laser cutters
Cut and engrave plastic, wood, cardboard, fabrics and some metals. Only work on 2D objects
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Die cutters
Press out a net from a sheet of material. They have a blade shaped to the outline so it is expensive but good for complicated designs
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Vinyl cutters
Cut out 2D shapes from thin materials like vinyl and card. They make signs and stencils
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3D printers
Used for rapid prototyping, convert your design fro an image to a 3D model
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Guides tools or makes sure a workpiece is in the right place, they speed up production and simplify the making process, drilling jig gets rid of need for marking out and guides the drill so they are all identical
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How does CAD improve accuracy?
You can see if the components will fit together and copy an paste the image so they are consistent
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How can CAM improve accuracy?
It can be used for rapid prototyping so you can see if it will fit before making the final product
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Technology push


Using new technology to develop new products or improve existing ones

Card 3


Arts and Crafts


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Art Nouveau


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Art Deco


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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