Processes of Language Change

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Compounding
Joining words together to form a new word, e.g. "muffin-top", "dropout"
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Blending
Joining morphemes or syllables from an existing word to form a new word, e.g. "internaut" from "internet" and "astronaut"
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Clipping
The shortening of an existing word to leave a single part, e.g. "retro" from "retrograde"
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Amelioration
A change in the meaning of a word that causes it to gain status, e.g. positive colloquial adjectives like "sweet", "cool" and "sick"
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Pejoration
A change in the meaning of a word that causes it to lose status, e.g. "lame", "*******" and in some uses "gay"
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Broadening
Extending the range of meanings for a word by adding a new meaning and/or use to an existing word, e.g. "pants" meaning "rubbish" as well as describing a garment
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Narrowing
The loss of the range of meaning for a word by a particular use becoming archaic or obsolete, e.g. "skyline" only really being used for a horizon with tall buildings in it
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Colloquial language
Language used in informal, ordinary conversation
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Slang
Informal vocabulary associated with the (mostly) spoken language of a particular group, e.g. "chav"
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Phonetic spelling
Using letters to spell out exactly how a word is pronounced, rather than using its standard spelling
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Rebus
A way of representing a word or phrase using, letters, other characters and images in non-Standard and imaginative ways, e.g. "gr8" for "great"
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Concord
The correct grammatical agreement of word classes and syntax, e.g. the use of the correct singular pronoun in "I am feeling better"
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Eye-dialect
An unusual and non-Standard way of spelling used to represent patterns of speech
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Nonce formation
A word created as a one-off for that use or occasion only
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Emoticon/smiley
Combinations of characters to create a pictorial representation of an emotion, e.g. ":)"
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Initialism
The abbreviation of a phrase using the initial letters of the words within it, e.g. "NHS"
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Acronym
As above, but the initials are pronounced as a separate word, e.g. "lol"
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Elision
The missing out of sounds of parts of words, commonly when "that" is pronounced more like "tha"
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Joining morphemes or syllables from an existing word to form a new word, e.g. "internaut" from "internet" and "astronaut"

Back

Blending

Card 3

Front

The shortening of an existing word to leave a single part, e.g. "retro" from "retrograde"

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A change in the meaning of a word that causes it to gain status, e.g. positive colloquial adjectives like "sweet", "cool" and "sick"

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A change in the meaning of a word that causes it to lose status, e.g. "lame", "*******" and in some uses "gay"

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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