Priming Effects in Judgement and Behaviour

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How are perception and behaviour related?
Perception allows us to understand how we should act in a situation.
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Why did we develop mechanisms of perception?
Because we are always confronted by situations to deal with.
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Does perceiving always lead to doing?
In non-primates, this is often the case. The link between perception and behaviour is fairly hard-wired, so perception will always lead to the same perceptual process.
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What are two possible explanations for why perception doesn't always lead to action in humans?
Some other process may be needed to translate perception into action, or there is something that inhibits behavioural response..
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What evidence suggests the presence of inhibitory systems?
Our brains has evolved and bits have been added, so we've developed more sophisticated systems to exert inhibitory control over actions. Also, those with frontal lobe damage do not have inhibitory mechanisms to control behaviour.
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How do mirror neurons provide evidence for the link between perception and imitation?
Shows that perception and action share the same neurological pathway. The same neurons fire up when perceiving an action as when carrying out an action.
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How did Zajonc et al. (1982) show the link between imitation and brain activation?
Pps could recognise people from their year book better if they imitated their facial expression, and worse if they were chewing gum (couldn't imitate).
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What did Jeannerod (1994) find about ideomotor action?
If you think about something, the parts of your brain that will make it happen activate. But something prevents you from doing it.
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What is the common-coding hypothesis?
The idea that because perception and action share the same neurological system, it should be hard to perform an action at the same time as perceiving it.
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What causes imitation?
It's a consequence of the way behaviour is represented internally.
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What are some observable imitations that we do?
Facial expressions (babies and adults when feeding), behaviour matching, and speech-related variables (same intonations as friends).
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What did Chartrand & Bargh find about the strategic nature of imitation?
It is not a strategic mechanism. A participant who didn't know the confederate still matched behaviour (nose rubbing/ foot shaking).
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What did Bargh et al.'s (1996, study 1) study show about priming for rudeness?
Some pps were primed with rude/ polite/ neutral words in scrambled sentence task. Those primed with rude words interrupted the experimenter a lot sooner than others.
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What other evidence shows trait inference priming?
Carver et al. (1983)- hostility prime and electric shock; Macrae & Johnston (1998)- helpful prime and pick up pens.
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How do social stereotype primes work in the same way as trait inference primes?
Stereotypes are made up of traits, so they should work the same way.
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What did Bargh et al.'s (1996, study 2) study show about priming with an elderly stereotype?
Pps were either primed with words associated with the elderly or a neutral prime in a scrambled sentence task. Those primed with the stereotype walked down the corridor afterwards a lot slower than those who weren't primed.
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What other evidence shows stereotype priming?
Dijksterhuis et al. (2007)- elderly prime and reaction time; Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg- politician prime and long-winded essays; Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg- professor/ secretary/ no prime and trivial pursuit (more careful).
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Why did we develop mechanisms of perception?

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Because we are always confronted by situations to deal with.

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Does perceiving always lead to doing?

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Card 4

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What are two possible explanations for why perception doesn't always lead to action in humans?

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What evidence suggests the presence of inhibitory systems?

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