Prime Minister and Executive

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Why is the Prime Minister powerful?
-They chair the cabinet and manages the agenda -Appoints all members of cabinet and junior members. -Decides who sits on cabinet committees. -Organises structure of government. -Can create, abolish or merge departments.
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What a senior minister and what body to they attend
Part of the cabinet and they attend decision making.
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Who runs Government departments?
A cabinet minister who is supported by several junior ministers?
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What do executive agencies do?
Carry out functions of government departments?
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When is a new programme announced?
It is announced at the start of each Parliamentary session in the Queen's speech.
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How is the Queen's speech delivered?
It is read by the queen but written by the government?
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Give an example of the Queen's speech?
May 2015-An in/out referendum was outlined?
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Can the Government only propose legislation from their manifesto?
No the Government does not confine itself to the measures in it's manifesto.
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When can the Government introduce legislation quickly and give an example?
To contend with emergencies-threat of terrorism.
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What is doctors' mandate?
Amend existing statutes in order to bring the UK into line with International law.
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Who do Ministers often consult with? (With an example.)
Interested parties-In 2015 Cameron talked to employers about introducing more apprenticeships.
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What is the budget?
An annual statement of Government plans for changes to taxation and public spending.
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How is the budget created?
It is created by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in consultation with the PM.
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When is it revealed to the rest of the Cabinet?
Shortly before it is delivered.
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When does a new power introduce a budget? (With an example.)
It gives one after a general election-June 2010, George Osborne delivered an emergency budget only 90 days after the previous Labour Government's budget.
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What is Royal Prerogative powers?
Powers that belong to the PM however is not properly defined and is based on practice of previous Governments.
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Give three examples of what power Royal Prerogative gives.
-They cant start/get involved with wars. -Sign treaties which may effect things. -Can remove/withdraw previous legal charges. (Turing law.)
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How has the power of Royal Prerogative been limited?
-Supreme courts (Article 50.) -Reforms. -Some issues are too big to have one person decide on them (Iraq War.)
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How can the Government control Parliament when it initiates legislation?
-Government can carry over over any incomplete legislation from one session to another without having to start again from the beginning of the legislation process. -If a Government has a majority it can rely on whips.
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How can the Government control Parliament when it initiates legislation?(Continued.)
-Controls most of Parliamentary time available for legislation.
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What is the guillotine? (With an example.)
Allows Government to curtail debate on individual clauses of a Bill.-Tried by Cameron Government in a Lords debate on redrawing of constituency boundaries.
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What is programming motion?
Enables executive to set out in advance the time limit for each stage in passage of Bill.
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How is secondary legislation made without passing a new act of Parliament?
The Government uses powers created by an earlier act.
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What are criticisms of statutory instruments? (Give examples.)
-Used to make controversial changes. (2016-used to abolish maintenance grants.) -Government can sneak changes through the back door. -Enable government to evade Parliamentary scrutiny (HenryVIII clauses)
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What are criticisms of statutory instruments? (Give examples.) (Continued)
-Two thirds become law without being put before MPs. (Lords' defeat of Cameron]s Government plans for cuts to tax credits.)
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Give examples of how secondary legislation gives the government too much power?
-Too easy to adapt easily. -Departure from constitutional principle. -Alter substance and effect.
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Give examples that secondary legislation does not give the Government too much power.
-Needed to tidy things up. -Can be challenged in court. -Judges keep an eye on despotic tendencies. -Courts have established they will apply limitations.
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What factors affect appointment of Cabinet ministers? (With examples.)
-Experts in their field (Estelle Morris{education secretary for Labour}was a former teacher.) -'safe pair of hands' (David Lidington{minister for cabinet office Jan 2018} was appointed due to his likable nature.
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What factors affect appointment of Cabinet ministers? (With examples.) (Continued.)
-Potential rivals bound to collective responsibility. (Brown could not criticise Blair over Iraq.) -Popularity. (Mo Mowlam was a popular figure in the Labour party.) -Reward loyalty. (George Osborne{Chancellor}was a loyal 'Cameroon'.)
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What factors affect appointment of Cabinet ministers? (With examples.) (Continued.)
-Diversity with blending youth and experience. (Blair appointed women and minority groups.) -Potential (Cameron viewed Nicky Morgan{education secretary}as future leader of the party. -Ideology.(May demoted economic liberals close to Cameron{Gove}
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Why was the cabinet reshuffle of January 2018 a fail? (With examples.)
Cabinet ministers were not willing to be persuaded/moved. (Hunt refused to move from health and Justine Greening left the Government rathering than moving from education to pensions.)
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What are the four factors that May has to think about? (With examples.)
-Potential rivals. (May undermine her, Boris Johnson.) -Ideology (needs a mix of brexiteers&remainers.)-Diversity(Sajid Javid.)-Loyalty.
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What are the principles of collective responsibility?
-Ministers are collectively responsible for all Government policies. -All ministers must publicly support all government policies, even if they disagree with them. -If a minister wishes to dissent publicly they must resign first or be fired.
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What are the principles of collective responsibility?
-As cabinet meetings are secret, only dissent within the government is concealed.
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What is the importance of collective responsibility to the PM?
-PM's authority is enhanced. -The party is shows a united front. -Reduces possibility of dissent.
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What is a payroll vote?
-Government can reply upon votes of all ministers in any close decisions.
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Give examples of when collective responsibility was limited.
-Coalition (2010-2015)-CR was applied but excluded from some policy areas (renewal of Trident.) and the EU referendum (1975&2016) ministers could say their position on remaining in the EU.
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What are the positive aspects of collective responsibility?
-Creates a government which is united, strong and decisive. -The public, Parliament and media are presented with a clear, single vision of government policy. -The confidentiality of cabinet means members can have private discussion if they disagree.
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What are the negative aspects of collective responsibility?
-Puts too much power into the hands of the PM. -Ministers cannot be open about their views on policies. This may create debates within government. -Resignation under doctrine are dramatic and can undermine the government,
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What are the principles of individual responsibility?
-Ministers must be prepared to be accountable to Parliament for the policies and decisions made by their department. -If a minister makes a serious error of judgement,he/she should be required to resign.
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What are the principles of individual responsibility? (Continued.)
-If a serious error is made by the minister's department whether or not the minister was involved he is honour bound to resign.-If the conduct of a minister falls below the standards required of someone in public office, he/she should leave office.
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Has individual ministerial responsibility been eroded?
-There is no specific way Parliament can remove a minister. -Ministers do not resign as a matter of principle like they use to.(Alastair Darling refused to resign over the credit crunch and economic recession in 2007.)
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Has individual ministerial responsibility not been eroded?
-Ministers are still accountable. -Minister resign when they have fallen short of public standard. (Jacqui Smith{Labour home secretary}resigned when her husband claimed for pornographic movies on her expenses in 2009.)
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How did a majority increase Margaret Thatcher's power?
-She had a massive majority (1987 she had a majority of 102.)
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How did the state of the party increase Margaret Thatcher's power?
-She dismissed her opponents to create a united front.
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How did the state of the party decrease Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Party divided over Europe ("no,no,no")-Alienated Geoffrey Howe who was her most loyal ally for 10 years.-Backbenchers were starting to lose their nerve.(No point she's finished-speech writer.)-Party split over views.
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How did characters within the cabinet increase Margaret Thatcher's power?
-She had allies within the cabinet. (John Major and Ken Clarke.)
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How did character within the cabinet decrease Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Lost control of the cabinet(Michael Heseltine ran against her for PM.)-Cabinet decided her career was over.-Only four cabinet members gave her support to run in the leadership election in 1990(Ken Clarke was one of them.)
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How did policies increase Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Strongly wanted to confront USSR. -Avoided excessive debt.(Just coming out of the winter of discontent.)-Right to buy.
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How did policies decrease Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Introduced poll tax which led to riots. -Out of step with German reunification.
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How did prominent events/economy increase Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Agreed that Britain should join Europe exchange mechanism.-Ordered a task force to Falkland Islands. -Cold war ended (Thatcher and Reagan 'defeated' communism.)
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How did prominent events/economy decrease Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Out of step with events.(A lone voice who was against the fall of the Berlin Wall.)-Inflation/interest rates went up. -Introduced unpopular measures.
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How did the style of leadership increase Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Supporters saw her as principled and visionary.
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How did the style of leadership decrease Margaret Thatcher's power?
-Seen as harsh ("captain sending out the first batter with broken bats.") -Conviction politician (refused to U-turn.)-Relied on support but not really knowing if it was there.
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How did the type of Government increase Tony Blair's power?
-Had a majority for all the time he was in power (1997;179 2001;167 2005;66)
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How did the state of the party increase Tony Blair's power?
-Led a united party with a clear vision. -Cohesive and dynamic.
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How did the state of the party decrease Tony Blair's power?
-By 2003/4 the party began to divide mainly due the the Iraq War.
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How did characters within the cabinet increase Tony Blair's power?
-Could trust his cabinet.
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How did character within the cabinet decrease Tony Blair's power?
-Powers handed to his leading cohort. (Economy handled by Brown.)
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How did policies increase Tony Blair's power?
-Closer units with Europe. -Did not join the single currency.
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How did policies decrease Tony Blair's power?
-Devolution.
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How did prominent events/economy increase Tony Blair's power?
-Substantial period of economic growth. -Public services and education was growing. -Power-sharing began in Northern Ireland.
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How did prominent events/economy decrease Tony Blair's power?
-Iraq War(found out Saddam Hussein had no weapons of mass destruction like they thought.) -Inequality was rising.
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How did the style of leadership increase Tony Blair's power?
-Charismatic. -Collective leadership.
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How did the style of leadership decrease Tony Blair's power?
-After 6/7 years Blair's leadership became more singular.
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How did a majority increase David Cameron's power?
-2015; had a majority of 12. (small but still a majority.)
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How did the type of government decrease David Cameron's power?
-Part of the coalition. 2010;no majority.
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How did the state of the party increase David Cameron's power?
-Party united as there was a round need of austerity.
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-How did the state of the party decrease David Cameron's power?
-Party has three consecutive defeats before they got into power. -Divided which made it hard for him to dominate towards the end (EU.).
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How did characters within the cabinet increase David Cameron's power?
-Formed strong bond. -Kept rivals close by not removing the, from Cabinet (Johnson, Gove.)
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How did policies increase David Cameron's power?
-Programme of austerity.
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How did policies decrease David Cameron's power?
-Decision to hold an EU referendum.
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How did prominent events/economy increase David Cameron's power?
-Brought UK out of recession.
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How did prominent events/economy decrease David Cameron's power?
Foreign policies set backs. (Parliament restricted action in Syrian civil war.) -EU referendums.
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How did the style of leadership increase David Cameron's power?
-Wanted to be seen as a family man.
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How did the style of leadership decrease David Cameron's power?
-He was a controller.
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How does the type of government decrease Theresa May's power?
-Lost Parliamentary majority general election in 2017. -Needed support from the DUP.
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How does the state of the party increase Theresa May's power?
-Significant support within party (6% lead in the leadership election.) -More unified than Labour.
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How does the state of the party decrease Theresa May's power?
-Still split over EU.
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How does characters within the cabinet increase Theresa May's power?
-Reorganisation of cabinet system. -Strong characters bound to collective responsibility.
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How does character within the cabinet decrease Theresa May's power?
-Many strong characters (Johnson) -Many refused to move (Hunt in January 2018.) -Divisions in cabinet.
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How does policies increase Theresa May's power?
-Brexit means Brexit.
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How does policies decrease Theresa May's power?
-Brexit (domestic and foreign policy challenges.) -U-turned on dementia tax.
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How does prominent events/economy decrease Theresa May's power?
-Came to power without winning a general election or a party leadership election. -Called an early general election.
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How does the style of leadership decrease Theresa May's power?
-'strong and stable.' -'May-bot.'
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How does patronage (power to make appointments) decrease the PM's power?
-Promoting strong characters means she can't do what she wants (Jeremy Hunt refusing to move.) -Can't get peers to support them. (Can't appoint peers anymore.)
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How does the Royal Prerogative decrease the PM's power?
-House of Lords can still block (article 50.) -Use to do something unpopular it could turn their party against them? (Blair did not use Royal Prerogative for the Iraq War.) -Iraq War set precedent of vote for war.
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How does a majority decrease the PM's power?
-Can loose majority. (2015-2017.) -Confidence and supply/coalition may fall through.
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How does the party decrease the PM's power?
-Party could be divided over issues (EU.) -May defeat a big bill. (Sunday trading law.)
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How might a PM's personality decrease the PM's power?
-If they are unpopular people will not vote for them again. (Callaghan after the winter of discontent.) -Margaret Thatcher's personality led to people feeling alienated.
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What is the overall summary of the Rose theory?
-PM power has increased over time.
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What is the Rose theory?
-There are old style PMs(Churchill.) -Traditional PMs.(Wilson.) -New style PMs.(Blair.)
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What does Rose mean by New Style.
These PMs court the media (Blair and Murdoch.), spend less time in the commons, hold fewer cabinet meetings and take more advice from advisers than cabinet members aka Westwingerfication. (Blair and Alistair Campbell.)
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There has been an increase use of 'bi-laterals.' What are bi-laterals?
-One-on-one meetings between individual cabinet members and the PM rather than the whole cabinet.
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What is the cafetiere theory?
Policy is 'plunged' from above.
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What is the overall summary of Hennessy's theory?
Each Prime Minister is different.
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What does hennessy mean by the weather makers, nation shifters and seasoned copers.
-Weather Makers-those who change the country's direction (Thatcher privatised industry. -Nation shifters-those who change the way government operates. (Blair and devolution.) -Seasoned copers-those who attempt to balance all the divides in governemnt
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What does Hennessy mean by the promise unfulfilled and overwhelmed?
-Promise Unfulfilled (wilson.) -Overwhelmed (Major and Brown.)
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Give examples of how events changed prime ministerial power?
-Failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq weakened Blair. -Brexit has consumed Theresa May, perhaps allowing less time for other policies.
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Give examples of how other members of the cabinet may change prime ministerial power.
-Major was constrained by Eurosceptics. -Cameron was forced to replace the EMA with a slimmed down version as the Lib Dems were unhappy with it being scrapped. -May clashed with Hammond over rises to National Insurance Contributions.
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Give examples of how economic factors may affect prime ministerial power.
-Blair had money to spend;Black Wednesday damaged Major. -Brown had little room for tax cuts to ease the effects of the credit crunch.
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What is the definition of a cabinet government?
A system of government where the cabinet is the central policy making body.
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Who's government was most associated with a cabinet government?
Harold Wilson's 1964-70.
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What happens within a cabinet government?
-Any disputes were solved within the cabinet. -For policy to become 'official government policy' it has to be approved by the cabinet first. -PM has a higher status but cannot make decisions without their colleagues.
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What is the definition of a Prime Ministerial Government?
Political circumstances in which the Prime Minister controls policy making and the whole machinery of government.
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Who is a Prime Ministerial government most associated with?
Thatcher but it began when Wilson became prime minister again in 1974.
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What are the key aspects of a prime ministerial government?
-PM controls agenda of cabinet. -PM uses media to get message across. (Thatcher's favourite newspaper was the sun.) -Cabinet is pack with PM's supporters.
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Who sits in the cabinet?
-Senior members of the government.
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Why is the cabinet week when it comes to formulating policy?
-It is too large to carry out detailed work. (May and Hammond did not discuss the plan to raise National Insurance Contributions in cabinet.)
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Why is the cabinet not seen as the best place to deal with crisis?
-Not all of them are an expert on every crisis. -Too large. (Blair relied on close advisors for the Iraq.)
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Why is it necessary for the parliamentary agenda to be set outside of the cabinet, in the 'quad', during the coalition years 2010-2015?
As it is too different manifestos and parties so it must be set out where there is less room to clash?
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What is the definition of 'rubber stamp'?
-The cabinet tend to approve whatever the PM wants even if it is not their idea.
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How does the cabinet remain powerful?
-legitimises government policy. -Interprets what government policy actually is. -Cabinet organises presentation of official policy. -Determine government's legislative agenda. -Can drive a PM out of power by refusing to support them.
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How does the cabinet remain powerful? (Continued.)
-Has power to overrule a PM if it has enough support for an alternative policy(2015 Cameron was forced by his cabinet to suspend collective responsibility in the EU referendum.) -Can resolve disputes especially in the coalition.
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How is the cabinet not powerful?
-Cannot remove PM. -Does not really have any power of its own.
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