Pressure groups flashcards

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What are Pressure groups?
An organized group of people that come together with a common cause or interest that aims to influence the policies or actions of government.
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What are the types of pressure group?
Sectional or promotional and insider or outsider
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What are promotional/casue groups?
a PG that aims to advance particular values, ideals and principles. Their membership is open to all and the members are motivated by moral concerns.
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Give 4 examples cause groups
Friends of the Earth, Amnesty Internation, RSPB, Electoral Reform society
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What are interest/sectional groups?
a PG that seeks to advance or protect interests of their memebers. Their membership is limited to particular people in society and their members are motivated by material self-interest.
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Give 4 examples of interest groups
CBI(Confederation of British Industry), TUC(Trades Union Congress), BMA(British Medical association), NUT(National Union of Teachers)
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What are peak groups and give examples?
Peak groups are grousps that coordinates the activites of different PGs in the same area of interest. Often work closely to government. CBI, and TUC are examples
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In what ways is the promotional/sectional distinction blurred?
some PGs have both characteristics, A single PG may have members with both sectional and promotional motivations and some PGs try to mask their sectional motivations e.g. BMA
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What is an insider PG?
A group that is consulted by government on a regular basis. They operate 'inside' the decision making process
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What are the different insider groups and examples?
High-insider groups- operate both behind scenes and through mass media(CBI,NFU,BMA), Low-profile insider groups-concentrate on developing contact with gov(Howard League for penal reform), and Prisoner groups who depend on gov who may fund them/creat
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What is an outsider group?
Have no links with gov, they try to seek influence indirectly through public opinion campaigns, mass media.(CND, ALF)
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What are the different types of outsider group?
Potential insiders-aspire insider status(Countryside Alliance), Outsider groups by necessity-lack politcal knowledge, and Ideological outsider groups-radical aims-direct action,activism(ALF,CND)
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What are the drawbacks of the Insider/outsider distinction?
Many groups employ both insider &outsider tactics (high-profile insider groups)using media, Insider status is more a matter of degree than fac-some PGs are more inside than others. Outsiders Greenpeace and Friends of the Earch have some inside status
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What are the functions of PG's
Representation. Political Participation, Education, Policy formulation, Policy Implementation
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What is a chequebook group?
A PG in which activism is restricted by full-time professionals and the members are more of just a financial support
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How do pressure groups exert influence?
Ministers and civil servant, Public Opinion, Parliament, Direct Action, Political parties and The courts
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What is direct action?
Political action that imposes sactions that affect government or the running of the country. It is often illegal
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What is civil disobedience?
Law-breaking that is justified by reference to higher religious, moral or political principles. Breaking the law to make a point
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What are the different ways that a PG can be successful?
Affecting government policy, Pushing an issue up the political agenda, Changing people's values, perceptions and behaviour
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What affects the power of a PG?
Wealth, Size, Organiszation and leadership, The governments views, Effectiveness of opposition
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What is elitism?
the theory that political power is concentrated in the hands of a few
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What is Pluralism?
theory of distribution of power, power is widely&evenly dispersed in society. Not cocentrated in hands of elite. Pluralists have a positive view of PG politcs-they strengthen the democratic process
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What are the ways that PGs are becoming more powerful?
The growth of promotional groups, More access points, Use of new media and e-campaigning, advance of globalization
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In what ways are PGs not becoming more powerful/declining?
The end of corporation, A decline in meaningful and active participation
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How do PGs promote democracy?
Supplement electoral democracy, Widen political participation, Promote education, Ensure participation and debate
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What is pluralist democracy?
form of democracy that operates through capacity of organized groups and interests to articulate popular demands and ensure government responsiveness. Can be seen as alternative to parliamentary democracy. Includes dispersal of power,neutral gov
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How do pressure groups threaten democracy?
Increase political inequality, Exercise non-legitimate power, Exert 'behind the scenes' influence and Lead to tyranny of the minority.
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What are the arguments for pressure groups?
Widen power, Promote Education, Extend participation, Limit government, Maintain stability
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What are the arguments against pressure groups?
Concentrate power, Narrow self-interest, Unaccountable power, Undermine Parliament, Ungovernability
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sectional or promotional and insider or outsider

Back

What are the types of pressure group?

Card 3

Front

a PG that aims to advance particular values, ideals and principles. Their membership is open to all and the members are motivated by moral concerns.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Friends of the Earth, Amnesty Internation, RSPB, Electoral Reform society

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a PG that seeks to advance or protect interests of their memebers. Their membership is limited to particular people in society and their members are motivated by material self-interest.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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