Pressure Groups

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How are pressure groups defined?
An organised group of people that aims to influence the policies or actions of the government
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What are pressure group's aims?
To put pressure on decision makers
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Why are pressure groups good for democracy?
Provide a voice for minorities/ important means of participation/ publicise issues
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Why are pressure groups bad for democracy?
Elitist/ Use violent & illegal methods/ lack internal democracy/ unelected PGs influence elected governments
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What are the aims of interest pressure groups?
To protect the interests of their members or a section of society
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What do promotional pressure groups do?
focus on specific issues of causes
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What do insider pressure groups do?
Send representatives to sit on official committees and collaborate on government policy papers
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What did Duverger (1972) say about insider pressure groups?
They have unofficial power, so they have own representative in governments but the relationship between them & the groups remain secret & circumspect
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What are outsider pressure groups?
Attempt to put government under pressure by presenting their case to the mass media and generating public opinion in their favour
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What did Morgan (1999) say Ad hoc pressure groups are?
They deal with specific new proposals
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What did Morgan (1999) say political cause groups are?
They change the organisation of the political systems
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What did Morgan (1999) say idea groups are?
They provide an ideological rationale or carry out research for the aims of specific causes or issues
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What did Morgan (1999) say latent groups were?
Not yet fully evolved in terms of organisation, representation or influence
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What is an example of pressure groups failing due to their campaign contradicting government policy?
NUS failed to stop tuition fees in 2011 as the government was committed to its policy
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What is an example of pressure groups failing due to them alienating the public?
ALF's aim was to ban animal testing but used violent acts
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What is an example of pressure groups failing due to there being a lack of public support?
Countryside Alliance's aim was to bring back fox hunting but the public supported the ban
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What is an example of pressure groups failing due to there being opposition from other pressure groups?
Forest's aim was to protect smoker's rights but failed due to ASH being more powerful
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What is an example of pressure groups failing due to the government being able to resist popular campaigns?
Failed to prevent the invasion of Iraq due to the Blair government being committed to it & had support from parliament
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How do pressure groups differ from political parties?
Seek to exert influence/ have a narrow issue focus/ have shared interests & common causes
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What are the differences between interest groups and cause groups?
Interest groups: defend a specific interests/ closed membership/ material concerns/ only benefit members. Cause groups: promote causes/ open membership/ moral concerns/ benefit wider society
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What are the differences between insider and outsider groups?
Insider groups: access to policy makers/ low profile/ mainstream goals/ strong leadership. Outsider: no access to policy makers/ high profile/ radical goals
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How do pressure groups influence government policy?
Direct mailing/ professional lobbying/ mass media/ public petitions/ poster & leaflet campaign/ letter writing
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What factors make pressure groups effective?
activities/ large membership/ status/ public opinion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are pressure group's aims?

Back

To put pressure on decision makers

Card 3

Front

Why are pressure groups good for democracy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are pressure groups bad for democracy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the aims of interest pressure groups?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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