# Physics

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- Created by: TillyGarfoot
- Created on: 02-04-19 20:41

Pressure (equation)

Pressure = force / area

1 of 202

Pressure unit

Pa or N/m2

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Increase in pressure (equation)

Height x gravitational field strength x density

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Moment

A turning force such as trying to open or close a door or using a spanner

4 of 202

Moment (equation)

Moment = force x distance from pivot

5 of 202

Lever

Can be used to apply a force which turns something around a pivot

6 of 202

Equilibrium

For a beam to balance the total clockwise moment must equal the total anti-clockwise moment

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Gears

Wheels with teeth that’s slot together, which can be used to increase the power of a turning force

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Density

A measure of how closely packed particles are in a material

9 of 202

Density (equation)

Mass / volume

10 of 202

Solids

Regular particle arrangement, cannot be compressed, don’t flow, can’t change shape

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Liquids

Regular particle arrangement but can flow, cannot be compressed, can change shape

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Gases

Irregular particle arrangement - spread out, can be compressed, can flow, can change shape

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Evaporate

When a liquid substance is given enough energy it will turn into a gas

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The latent heat of fusion

The energy needed to melt 1kg of ice

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Latent Heat of Fusion (Equation)

Amount of energy / mass

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Heat

The name for a type of kinetic energy possessed by particles

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Temperature

The measure of the average heat per particle or how hot or cold an object is

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Conduction

As a substance is heated, the particles begin to vibrate as they get more energy. These vibrations are passed on to the next particle and the next, making the heat energy travel through the substance

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Convection currents

As particles are heated they expand and so become less dense, making them rise. The higher they go, the cooler it is as they travel away from the heat source so they contract, becoming denser and fall again.

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Infrared Radiation

The suns heat travels to the Earth by infrared waves

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Insulation

Reduces heat energy transfer

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Electrical energy (equation)

Power x time

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Specific Heat Capacity

The amount of energy needed for 1kg of a material to increase in temperature by 1*C

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Specific Heat Capacity (Equation)

Energy / (mass x temperature change)

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Specific Heat Capacity (Units)

J/kg*C

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Specific Heat Capacity of water

4200J/kg*C

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Energy

Allows things to happen

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Kinetic energy

Anything moving

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Thermal energy

Any object - the hotter it is, the more energy it has in this store

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Chemical energy

Anything that can real ease energy by a chemical reaction

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Gravitational potential energy

Anything in a gravitational field ie. anything that can fall

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Elastic potential energy

Anything stretched, like springs and rubber bands

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Electrostatic energy

E.g. two charges that attract or repel each other

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Magnetic energy

E.g, two magnets that attract or repel each other

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Nuclear energy

Atomic nuclei release energy from this store in nuclear reactions

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Energy pathway

A route along which energy can be transferred or a method by which energy is exchanged between stores

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Mechanical pathway

A force acting on an object e.g. pushing

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Electrical pathway

A charge doing work e.g. charges moving around a circuit

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Heating pathway

Energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one e.g. heating a pan on a hob

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Radiation pathway

Energy transferred y waves e.g. energy from the sun reaching Earth by light

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Law of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed just moved from store to store

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Sankey Diagram

Shows the efficiency of a device at transferring energy

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Energy efficiency (equation)

Amount of energy in useful store / amount of energy in starting store

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Work done (equation)

Force x distance moved

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Power (equation)

Work done / time taken

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Transverse waves

E.g. Light. Perpendicular particle movement.

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Longitudinal waves

E.g. sound. Parallel particle movement, spread out then close.

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Rest position/equilibrium

Where the particles would be if there was no wave

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Amplitude

Maximum displacement from the rest position

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Wave length

Length of a complete wave

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Time period

Time for one wave to pass a point

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Frequency

Number of waves per second

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Wave speed (equation)x2

Wavelength / time period or wavelength x frequency

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Refraction

When there is a change in density, the wave bends as it passes through the medium

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Virtual images

formed from the apparent divergence of light rays from a point, as opposed to an image formed from this actual divergence

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Ultrasound

A sound over 20000Hz

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Infrasound

A sound below 20Hz

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Frequency (equation)

Number of waves / number of seconds

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How many forces does it take to change the shape of an object?

Two

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Hooke’s Law

The strain in a solid is proportional to the applied stress within the elastic limit of that solid

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Spring constant (equation)

Force / extension

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Renewable energy resources

Resources that will not run out

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Non renewable energy resources

Resources that will eventually run out

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Wind power

Power obtained by harnessing the energy of the wind, using turbines

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Solar power

Power obtained by harnessing the energy of the suns rays using solar panels or cells

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Hydroelectric power

Water is stored behind a dam in a reservoir, the water runs down the pipes to turn the turbine, and produce electricity

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Wave power

Power obtained by harnessing the energy produced by waves at sea

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Tidal power

Obtained from changing sea levels

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Bio-mass energy

Biomass is burnt to generate electricity

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Geothermal energy

Heat energy produces by the internal heat of the Earth

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Which way do electrons flow in a circuit?

- to + terminal

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Which way is the conventional flow in a circuit?

+ to - terminal

73 of 202

Resistance

Measures how hard it is for the current to get through a material

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Current

The rate of flow of charge

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Current (equation)

Charge / time

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Current (units)

A - Amps

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Series circuit

Connected on the same path

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Parallel circuit

Where there are different paths to take

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Voltage

How much energy the charge transfers

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What is another name for voltage?

Potential difference

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Voltage (equation)

Energy / charge

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Voltage (units)

V - volts

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Charge (units)

C - coulombs

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Resistance (equation)

Voltage / current

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Resistance (units)

Ohm

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Ohm’s Law

States that current and voltage are directly proportional

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I-V graph - Ohmic graph

Obeys ohm’s Law - current and voltage are directly proportional

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I-V graph

Current voltage graph

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I-V graph - Lamp

Gradient decreases, resistance increases

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I-V graph - Diode

Almost no current flows if the voltage is applied in the reverse direction. A current flows in the forward direction whenever the voltage is more than about 0.6V.

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Diode

Allows a current to flow only one way

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Uses of diodes

Protecting equipment, switching in stand by batteries and rectification

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Ammeter (ES)

.

94 of 202

Power pack (ES)

.

95 of 202

Motor (ES)

.

96 of 202

Cell (ES)

.

97 of 202

Voltmeter (ES)

.

98 of 202

Light dependant resistor (ES)

.

99 of 202

Open switch (ES)

.

100 of 202

Resistor (ES)

.

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Bulb (ES)

.

102 of 202

Fuse (ES)

.

103 of 202

Variable resistor (ES)

.

104 of 202

Diode (ES)

.

105 of 202

Closed switch (ES)

.

106 of 202

Thermistor (ES)

.

107 of 202

Heater (ES)

.

108 of 202

Electrical power (equation)x2

Current x voltage or current squared x resistance

109 of 202

Speed (equation)

Distance/time

110 of 202

Acceleration (equation)

Change in velocity / time taken

111 of 202

Weight (equation)

Mass x gravitational field strength

112 of 202

Momentum (equation)

Mass x velocity

113 of 202

Change in gravitational potential energy (equation)

Mass x gravitational field strength x change in vertical height

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Kinetic energy (equation)

1/2 x mass x speed squared

115 of 202

Vector quantity

Has both a size and direction

116 of 202

Scalar quantity

Has only a size, no direction

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Acceleration (units)

m/s squared

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The distance traveled is the area under the line on what type of graph?

Velocity - time graphs

119 of 202

Change in GPE, KE, and elastic energy are equal to...

...work done

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Field

A place where an electrical charge will feel a force

121 of 202

Discharging

Releasing or neutralising the electric charge of an electrical object

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Earthing

Connecting an electrical device to the ground

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Fission

Splitting of heavy nuclei

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Chain reaction

A reaction which grows very quickly

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Concrete shield

The whole reactor is shelled in steel and concrete to absorb the dangerous gamma rays

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Heat exchanger

The heat boils water to make high pressure steam, which turns the turbine

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Fuel rods

Where the fission happens

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Moderator

Slows down the fission neutrons so they work more efficiently

129 of 202

Coolant

Carries the heat from the reactor to the heat exchanger

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Control rods

Limit the fission by absorbing neutrons

131 of 202

Fusion

The joining of light nuclei

132 of 202

Free body diagrams

Show the forces on an object

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Resultant force

The sum of the forces

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Newton’s First Law

States that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force

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Newton’s Second Law (equation)

Resultant force = mass of object x acceleration

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Newton’s Third Law

All forces in the universe occur in equal but oppositely directed pairs

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Upthrust

the upward force that a liquid or gas exerts on a body floating in it

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Centripetal Force

a force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed towards the centre around which the body is moving

139 of 202

Alternating current

Current flows one way around the circuit and then back again in the opposite direction - mains electricity

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Direct current

Current flows one way only around the circuit - cells

141 of 202

What voltage is mains electricity supplied at?

230V

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What frequency is mains electricity?

50Hz

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Fuse

If a fault occurs in a circuit, the fuse melts before anything else is damaged

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Circuit breakers

Fuses which can be reset and act more quickly and reliably than fuses

145 of 202

The Earth Wire

Provides a conducting oath from the metal case to the ground

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The Live Wire

Alternates in potential between +325V to -325V

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The Neutral Wire

At or near 0V and conducts an electrical current whenever the appliance is switched off

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Fuse rating

The maximum current that the fuse can carry without melting - 3A, 5A OR 13A

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How big is an atom?

0.1 to 0.5nm

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Radioisotopes

Radioactive isotopes

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Alpha particle

Contain 2 protons and 2 neutrons

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Beta particle

Same as an electron

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Gamma Ray

Electromagnetic wave

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Decay equation - Alpha

When alpha is emitted the top number (atomic/proton number) decreases by 4 and the bottom number (nucleon number) decreases by 2

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Decay equation - Beta

When beta is emitted a neutron turns into a proton and a beta - the bottom number (nucleon number) stays the same and the top number (proton number) increases by 1

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Decay equation - Gamma

Stays the same

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Positron

Has the same mass as an electron but a charge of +1 instead of -1

158 of 202

Properties of Alpha

+2 charge, small deflection, highly ionising, weakly penetrating

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Properties of Beta

-1 Charge, large deflection, moderately ionising and moderately penetrating

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Properties of Gamma

No charge, not deflected, weakly ionising, strongly penetrating

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Background radiation

The radiation around us all of the time

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Decay

When a nucleus emits radiation to become stable

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Activity (radioactive)

The number of particles that decay each second

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Activity (radioactive) units

Bq - bequeral

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Count rate

The number of decays counted for a specific time

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Electromagnetic spectrum

the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends

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What are the 7 components of the electromagnetic spectrum?

Radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultra violet, x rays, gamma rays

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Excitation

When an electron jumps from one energy level to the next because it has absorbed the right amount of energy

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Dexcitation

When an electron jumps down from one energy level to the next and they give out energy

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What determines the colour of a star

Temperature - blue is the hottest, red the coolest

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Total internal reflection

the complete reflection of a light ray reaching an interface with a less dense medium when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle

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Fibre optics

Used to guide light from one place to another

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Specular

Reflection from a smooth surface at a definite angle

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Diffuse (reflection)

Reflection from a rough surface at multiple angles

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Differential absorption

When a surface absorbs some wavelengths it changes the colour

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Convex lens

When parallel rays of light pass through a convex lens the refracted rays converge at one point

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Concave lens

It spreads out light rays that have been refracted through it

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Magnification (Equation)

Image size / actual size

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Real image

Where the light rays actually travel to the image

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Momentum

A measurement of how hard it is to stop something or to change the motion o something

181 of 202

Magnet

Will attract magnetic materials and attract or repel another magnet

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Poles

Two ends of a magnet which give different forces

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Fields

The area around a magnet where a force is

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Electromagnetism

Materials become magnetic when a current is passed through it

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Uniform fields

Field lines are parallel and equally spaced

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Momentum (equation)

Momentum = mass x velocity

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Momentum (units)

Kgm/s

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Change in momentum (equation)

Force x time

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Thinking distance

How far you travel while reacting

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Braking distance

How far you travel once the brakes are pressed to when you stop

191 of 202

Stopping distance (equation)

Thinking distance + braking distance

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Boyle’s Law

the pressure of a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to its volume at a constant temperature

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Absolute zero

The point where there is no pressure or heat energy and therefore no particle movement in a substance. This happens at -273*C.

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Where does the Kelvin scale start?

-273*C

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Telescopes

The lenses are big so more light enters so we can see more objects

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Where is an asteroid belt located in our solars system?

Between Mars and Jupiter

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Weight (equation)

Mass x gravity

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The Doppler Effect

The change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source

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Red shift

Proves that the universe is expanding as the wavelengths are shifted towards the red end of the spectrum

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What does CMB stand for?

Cosmic microwave background radiation

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Steady state theory

Opposes the Big Bang theory and says that new matter is being created to fill in the gaps made form expansion

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Pa or N/m2

#### Back

Pressure unit

### Card 3

#### Front

Height x gravitational field strength x density

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

A turning force such as trying to open or close a door or using a spanner

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Moment = force x distance from pivot

#### Back

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