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What are enzymes?
chemical catalysts
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Where are enzymes found??
in all cells
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What do enzymes cause?
fruit to ripen, meat to tenderise, oxidation to speed up
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What is it called when enzyme activity is allowed to continue?
food spoilage
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When does oxidisation occur?
when fruit & veg are exposed to air after being cut, causing the flesh to turn brown
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How can oxidisation be prevented?
adding acid, blanching, preventing contact with air
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What is blanching?
Putting the food in boiling water to kill the enzymes, then freeze them or keep them in the water until needed
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What is food poisoning caused by?
pathogenic bacteria
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What are five examples of food poisoning?
straphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, E-coli, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella
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What are five common symptoms of food poisoning?
vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach cramps, fever, headaches
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When can cross-contamination occur?
raw food touches high risk foods, liquid/juices from raw food drips onto high risk food, bacteria are carried from one food to another by hand, knives, chopping boards or dirty cloths
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What are the five conditions for bacterial growth?
time, temperature, moisture, pH level, oxygen
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In the right conditions how long does it take to get from 1 to 1 million bacterium?
seven hours
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What temperature does bacteria grow best?
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What temperatures can bacteria produce quickly between?
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What pH do bacteria grow best in?
neutral, between 6.6 and 7.5 pH
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What do most bacteria require in order to reproduce?
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What are high-risk foods?
foods more prone to bacterial infection
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What are the five examples of high-risk foods?
raw/cooked meat, raw/cooked fish, egg products, cooked rice & lentils, gravies & soups
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What are the six principles of preservation?
MAP & removal of air, removal of moisture, additives, irradiation, reducing temperature, application of heat
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What is MAP?
Modified Atmospheric Packaging
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at what temperature are all bacteria and spores destroyed?
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What do bacteria become when they are at low temperatures?
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What is irradiation in the UK?
limited in use
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Card 2


Where are enzymes found??


in all cells

Card 3


What do enzymes cause?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is it called when enzyme activity is allowed to continue?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When does oxidisation occur?


Preview of the front of card 5
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