prelim PDHPE core 1

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Definition of health
Health is the state of wellbeing of an individual. It includes the aspect of physical, mental, social and spiritual health
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WHO definition of health
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
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Dimensions of health
physical, mental, spiritual and social
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Physical
absence of pain or illness, fitness, nutritional status, bodily function
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Mental
cope with stress, realise abilities and strengths, feelings and emotions
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Spiritual
sense of purpose, feeling connected with others and society,
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Social
interact with others, communication skills, interpersonal relationships
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Relative health
is how we judge our health compared to others and other times
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Dynamic health
refers to the constant change in our health level
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Perception
refers to the way something is seen or viewed by an individual or group
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Influences on perceptions of health
environment, personal interpretation of health, our behaviours and lifestyle, our past level of health, attitudes about health conveyed by family, peers and media, the value we place on health, beliefs about our capacity to achieve good health
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Perceptions of health of others
living conditions, fitness levels and health behaviours shape our view of their health
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Stereotypes (perceptions)
limit our idea of their health status e.g. homeless people
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Factors that can affect a persons view of health
media, beliefs, ecuation, values, gender, lifestyle, family, basic needs, friends and peers, ourselves, environment, age
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Inaccurate perceptions of health
can lead to harmful behaviours e.g. anorexia
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Mortality
is the number of deaths in a give population from a particular cause and/or over a period of time
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Morbidity
is the incidence or level of illness or sickness in a given population
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life expectancy
is the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age, based on current death rates
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Social contrust of health
recognises that different people have different views on health due to their social circumstances and how they see, interpret, interrelate and interact with their environment
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Factors likely to play a role in our social contruct of health include:
gender, age, geographic location, community values and expectations, socioeconomic status, level of education, cultural background
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Socioeconomic status
is a measure of an individuals place in society, based on their income, education, employment and other economic factors such as house or car ownership
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Impact of the media on an individuals health
raises awareness and increases understanding of health issues, may include misleading messages leading to health misconceptions, affects the choices of different groups (e.g. government)
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Impact of peers on an individals health
social pressures (peer pressure) but they can also keep you safe (peer pressure you out of doing something dangerous)
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Impact of family on an individuals health
pass on their ideas and perceptions of health , living conditions, income, education and employments will impact an individuals health
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Action areas of the Ottawa Charter
1. Developing personal skills 2.Creating supportive environments 3.Strengthening community action 4.Reorintating health services 5. Building healthy public policy
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Determinants of health
factors associated with a person's life that can be modifiable and non-modifiable, that determine our level of health
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Groups responsible for health promotion
Health promotion is the responsibility individuals, community/school groups, non-governments organisations, governement (local, state, federal) and international organisations
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Health continuum
A line of health where people are positioned depending on their health at any given time, it is continually changing.
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Health promotion
The process pf enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health
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Modifiable health determinants
factors relating to a person's health that can be changed or altered
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Physical environment
Both natural and built aspects of where a person lives that can impact on an individuals health
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Political environment
the policies and laws set by the governments that can impact on the health of individuals
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Responsiblities
actions that we must take and tasks we must do
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Rights
entitlements we all have
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Protective behaviours
are those health behaviours that are likely to enhance a person's level of health e.g wearing sunblock, exercising, wearing a seatbelt
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Risk behaviours
are those health behaviours that have been found to contribute to the development of health problems or poorer levels of health e.g. smoking, tanning and speeding
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Health protective and health risk behaviours can......
interact to increase or decrease the level of risk a young person is likely to face in their current and future level of health
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The health determinants are:
Individual, socio-cultural, socio-economic and environment
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The health determinant individual involves:
knowledge, skills, attitudes, genetics
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The health determinant socio-cultural involes:
family, peers, madia, culture, and religion
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Modifiable determinants include:
attitudes, education, employment, geographic location, etc.
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Non-modifiable determinants include:
Genetics, family, gender and some environmental factors
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Influence of determinants will....
change throughout our life
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At different times it could have....
more or less impact on our health status and decisions.
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What can individuals do to modify the determinants they have little control over? (genetics)
If a particular disease or illness runs in the family such as breast cancer, an individual can undergo tests, screenings and surgery
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What can individuals do to modify the determinants they have little control over? (environmental factors)
Not much can be done to aviod long term risks but things such as staying inside when pollution levels are high or lobby governemtns for tighter controls on factory emissions can all slightly help an individuals health
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Control over our health increses when we believe we can:
*acquire information *make choices *manage a situation that may be threatening *use the skills we possess *employment and attitude
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How does the level of influence of the determinants change over time
At different times certain determinants will have a bigger influence on an individals health
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Health as a social construct
Viewing health as a social contruct recognises that a variety of social, cultural, environmental & economic factors have a significant influence on an individuals health. It also acknowledges that these factors do not make their impact on individuals
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Health as a social construct (continued)
and communities as isolated factors, but in an interrelated way.
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Social construct
challenges the notion that health is solely an individuals responsibility
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Socioeconomic disadvantage
refers to significant limitations to opportunity that can be experienced as a result of factors relating to social & economic circumstances, such as lower education, poorer education, unemployment, limited access to services, inadequate housing or
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Socioeconomic disadvantage (continued)
lack of social networks
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Inequality
is the unequal distribution of illness or conditions throughout the population
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Health campaigns....
seek to challenge commonly held attitudes in order to change behaviour and improve health
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Social norms
describe the behaviours, beliefs and values that are expected or seen as acceptable within different social groups
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Individual (responsibility for health)
Soley an individuals responsibility and is their fault for their poor health e.g. It's their own fault they are overweight
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Social construct (responsibility for health)
looks behind the scenes at what factors have caused poor health for an individual e.g. they suffered bullying which caused them to 'eat their feelings'
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Health Promotion
aims to achieve the best possible health for everyone. It's aimed at enabling people to increase control over their health, to improve their health,prevent poor health and to reach a state of complete wellbeing
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WHO definition of health promotion
The process of enabling people to increase control over their health and improve their health
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Health promotion involves many support systems that contribute to improving health
Government legislation(e.g.laws about wearing seatbelts), economic support(e.g.welfare programs), social support(e.g.social workers, nurses), physical support(e.g. doctors), education supports (e.g. schools) & government regulations (e.g.food labels)
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Empowerment
for individuals means that they are aware of the choices they have, they can make decisions without relying on others or expecting others to make decisions for them, and they can act in various situations in daily life to protect themselves and
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Empowerment (continued)
promote their health
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Responsibility for health promotion
individuals, community groups/schools, non-government organisations, governments (local, state and federal), and international organisations
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Advocate
means to encourage support for a particular cause, issue or group
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Non-governments organisations (NGOs)
are organisations that focus on a specific disease or health issue
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Health promotion strategies and approaches must involve...
the community at all levels, so that people feel engaged in decisions that aim to bring about change and empowered to improve their health
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Health promotion approaches and strategies are categorised as
Lifestyle and behaviour, preventative/medical and public health approaches
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Lifestyle and behaviour
*changing individuals behaviours *does not consider social construct (blames individual) *education #quit smoking programs, health education
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Preventative/medical
*prevention rather than cure *screenings *interventions -primary:prevention before cure -secondary:preventing reoccurance -tertiary:prevent chronic illness #childhood immunisation, cancer screening
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Public Health Approaches
*holistic approach *addresses determinants *supportive environments *employment #health promoting schools and work places
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A lifestyle approach to health promotion...
aims to reduce or prevent the incidence of risk behaviours that contribute to poor health
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Social marketing
refers to the use of marketing techniques to improve health and well-being by changing attitudes and behaviour in relation to a particular product or issue
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The Ottawa Charter
This charter is known for health promotion and is significant because it gives direction to health promotion through clear definitions, action plans and positive involvement
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3 health promotion goals: The charter advocates that...
good health is important for social, economic and personal development and is an important dimension of quality of life
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3 health promotion goals: This will enable us to...
share opportunities and resources to allow all to achieve their fullest health potential
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3 health promotion goals: We must mediate and....
involve all people in the health promotion and health care (individuals, community/school, NGOs, government, international). Different groups in society must mediate for the pursuit of health
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1. Building a public healthy policy:
Legislation for better health, healthier goods and services, more enjoyable environments #laws, taxes and rules #No hat no play, taxes on cigaretter, no smoking in public places
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2. Creating supportive environments:
encouragement of looking after and improving the environment (natural and man made) #10c refund on plastic bottles, shade shelters, smoke free areas
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3. Strengthening community action:
Such as encouraging self-help, social support and participation in health-related matters -more involvement from community groups- empowers them #garden club
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4. Developing personal skills:
by providing information and enhancing life skills, leading to greater control over one's own health #PDHPE in schools, advertisements, reach out website etc.
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5. Re-orienting health services:
the health sector must look beyond providing clinical & curative services & look to health promotion which addresses the total needs of the individual as a whole person -changing what they normally do to promote health #nurses needles at school
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Principles of social justice
Equity, diversity and supportive environments
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Equity
taking action to achieve fairness. Equity is the principle of distributing resources in a way that helps the disadvantaged groups in society overcome the unfair and aviodable inequities
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Diversity
variety, or difference between individuals and groups of peope
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Supportive environments
As a principle of social justice, establishment & maintenance of supportive environments is aimed at ensuring all community members have equal opportunity to achieve good health
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Card 2

Front

WHO definition of health

Back

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

Card 3

Front

Dimensions of health

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Physical

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mental

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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