Prejudice and Discrimination

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 11-01-16 19:52
Stereotyping for normal functioning
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Ingroup bias
Raises self esteem, allows downward comparison
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More prejudice if stigma is
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World view
you work for what you get
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Stone et al
Golf putting- white and black
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Asian women- asian heritage/ woman- maths
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Walton and Cohen
Stereotype lift
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Attributional Ambiguity
Overt discrimination replaced by discrete discrimination- hostile/ benevolent sexism
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being used as token causes anxiety- British police used as tokens in Northern Ireland
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Averse racism
people concious about it- asked to chose partner- white people chose white people to avoid saying something racist
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Rosenthal and Jacobson
told students and teachers when they would peak academically
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Tell general that a platoon is doing really well
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Jussim and Fleming
strong gender stereotyping- less strong for race and socio-economic status
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Barnett and Short
5-10 yr olds prefer Spaniards to Germans
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Hovland and Sears
negative correlation between price of cotton and number of murders- Frustration- Aggression model
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Miller and Bugelski
Summer camp- if denied night out- more prejudice against Japanese Americans
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Authority/ Harsh parenting
displaces anger onto weaker others/ intolerance or difficulties with intimacy
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Similarities in personalities but differences in racism in North and South USA
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Rapid changes of attitude
Anti-semitism in Germany 1930s/ Japanese Americans after pearl harbour
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Right wing authoritarianism
conventionalism, authoritarian aggression
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Stalin/ Wilberforce/ Martin Luther King
Left wing/ both fighting prejudice yet right wing
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Social dominance theory
acceptance of myths which justify unequal status quo
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Belief congruence theory
beliefs define attitudes but race defines friendship (weak theory, doesn't apply to established conflicts)
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System justification theory
people at the top defend status quo
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Social identity theory
categorise and simplify social world
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ants raise siblings/ bacteria in cows stomach/ inclusive fitness/ people raise adopted kids and help strangers?
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Bio-social approach
tendency to help kin results in empathy to non-kin/ help people similar to us
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ps watch film of students starting uni- either asked to empathise with thoughts or control- more likely to help out if feeling empathetic
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Ruggiero et al
32 heroic interveners- had been involved in incidents/ more physically able to help
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Told higher tolerance to electric shocks- more likely to help move electrically charged objects/ told they were good at handing rats likely to volunteer to catch dangerous rat
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Demographic variables
parents occupation/ size of home town/ no. of siblings= not significant
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Negative correlation between size of home town and pro-social behaviour
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Bateson et al
women more empathetic with same sex teenager especially if they'd experienced similar things
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Transitory Psychological States
good mood/ guilt/ forgiveness= pro-social - told they'd broken camera, more likely to help someone that dropped groceries
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confronted the lad that stole their ****- prior commitment 95%/ without 20%
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Guilt is main factor when deciding whether to cheat
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low ability to delay gratification, socio-pathic tendencies, need for approval, low in interpersonal trust, high in chronic self destructive tendencies, low in adherence to work ethic, belief that transgressions are not punished
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Arousing or relaxing film- more arousal= more cheating
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Warning of penalties- more arousal= more cheating
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Viewing model of cheater being caught
reduces cheating
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Bryan and Test
person trying to change tyre- more likely to stop and help by over 50% if seen person being helped earlier on
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Attribution processes
attributing cause of characteristic to explain a person's behaviour or situation
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Just world hypothesis
reduces helping behaviour
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Just one person/ short term problem
more likely to help
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Reciprocity norm
no evolutionary sense to help the weak
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Group identity
50 people playing game- can have 1 or 2 cows grazing etc- more group identity more likely to graze 1 cow
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Bystander effect
murder of Kitty Genoverse- 40 people heard but no one helped
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Latane and Darley
Ambiguity or lack of structure to situation/ diffusion of responsibility/ audience inhibition/ social influence/ bystander effect when in different cubicles
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1 person= 75%/ 2 people= 38%/ 3 people= 10%
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Latane and Rodin
Filing cabinet fell- with a friend- 70%
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Baumeister et al
Choking- leaders help 80%/ Followers 35%
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Card 2


Ingroup bias


Raises self esteem, allows downward comparison

Card 3


More prejudice if stigma is


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Card 4


World view


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Card 5


Stone et al


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