Power and Control: Education -2- Ethnicity

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Ethnicity and educational attainment
Topic 2
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Eysenck and Watson - Innate ability
There are differences in ability between various ethnic groups and 'races'.
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Eysenck and Watson - Innate ability CRITICISMS
Poor evidence; Intelligence tests are often culture bound (hard for someone to succeed in their test if it's not designed for their culture); It is not a natural difference in capability.
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Chinese Tiger Mothers, Daily Mail (2012) - Cultural factors
Strict culture entierly orientated around education (no less than a grade A and top of the class). They don't agree with the British culture of, "why can't you just let them be happy".
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Tony Sewell (1997) - Cultural factors
Black Caribbean pupils declining achievement is due to: Single-parent families; Boys being vulnerable to negative peer pressure and street culture; Boys are attracted to a culture of masculinity undermining school and educational qualifications.
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Cassen and Kingdon: Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2007) - Cultural factors
Language barriers may be an issue restricting different ethnicities in education. Asian household's main language is not English, but it was found that this was only a short term issue, overcome by most by the time they attended secondary school.
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Cassen and Kingdon: Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2007) - Material factors
Characteristics of low achievers: Free school meals; Living in areas of high unemployment; Single parents who also have poor qualifications.
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Murray and Saunders - Material factors
Caribbean family life is demotivating to boys who grow up without a father figure. the New Right state that Caribbean mothers work full-time and unsocial hours. Thus, they can't support their children in education.
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Haynes (2008) - Material factors
Ethnic minorities from lower socioeconomic backgrounds (African, Caribbean, Bangladeshi and Pakistani) are likely to attend schools in areas that are socially deprived. They don't get all the resources that would fulfil their education.
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Haynes (2008) - Material factors Continued
But even if socioeconomic backgrounds are taken into account, relative differences still exist between ethnic groups in terms of educational achievement.
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Crozier (2009) - Intstitutional racism
Views of South Asian people: Pacial harassment has been exacerbated by the experience of 9/11 and the Second Gulf War. Year 10 Pakistani-heritage pupils said that this worsened the situation.
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Crozier (2009) - Intstitutional racism Continued
The view created was: Homogenous dominated; Girls would work at home; Boys were macho, arrogant and priviledged within their homes. These views often impacted them at school. Less was expected of them compared to their white counterparts.
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Mitsos (2003) - Institutional racism
The school curriculum contiues to be ethnocentric. Black history and culture are frequently absent from the curriculum. These are powerful, formative images which shape the way we view the world.
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Mitsos (2003) - Institutional racism Continued
They also shape the way that balck children view themselves and sometimes lead to a low self-image or to a resistance to school and the white society which it represents.
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Mitsos (2003) - In school factors
The education system expects black children to fail and so often places them in lower streams. This encourages them to expect to fail and consequently many do.
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Bhatti (1999) - In school factors
Asian parents valued education, but had little understanding of the system. Schools were: unwelcoming; unsupportive; did not deal with racism effectively; had little interest of the culture or positive acknowledgement of differences.
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Gillborn and Youdell (2001) - In school factors
Racism is a key factor in educational unerachievement. 2 London schools = Black boys were the lowest achieving (at GCSEs) despite being the highest achieving when they started. They were placed in sets that were lower than they should've been.
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Gillborn and Youdell (2001) - In school factors Continued
Black boys were also less likely to be entered into higher tiers of GCSE.
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O'Donnell and Sharpe (2000) - In school factors
Negative labelling etc. which is stated to be happening in secondary schools, is not evidence of what is currently happening. Teachers are too closely evaluated on grades etc. and cannot afford to label negatively. School ethos is against labelling.
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O'Donnell and Sharpe (2000) - In school factors CRITICISMS
Some students still admitted that a disruptive minority of students could still be heavily criticised by teachers.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

There are differences in ability between various ethnic groups and 'races'.

Back

Eysenck and Watson - Innate ability

Card 3

Front

Poor evidence; Intelligence tests are often culture bound (hard for someone to succeed in their test if it's not designed for their culture); It is not a natural difference in capability.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Strict culture entierly orientated around education (no less than a grade A and top of the class). They don't agree with the British culture of, "why can't you just let them be happy".

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Black Caribbean pupils declining achievement is due to: Single-parent families; Boys being vulnerable to negative peer pressure and street culture; Boys are attracted to a culture of masculinity undermining school and educational qualifications.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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