Power

  • Created by: thiccmicc
  • Created on: 31-05-19 15:21
Power Asymmetry
A marked difference between the power statuses of individuals involved in discourse
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Unequal encounter
When one speaker holds more power than the other
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Powerful participant
A speaker with a higher status in context and is able to control contributions of a less powerful participant
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Less Powerful Participant
A speaker with less power in context, subject to constraints
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Constraints
Ways in which powerful participants block or control contributions from less powerful participants. Can be through ; agenda setting, topic management, interruptions
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Formulation
The rewording of a former contribution from a less powerful participant to impose meaning or a specific point
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IRF
initiation, response, feedback
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Practical Power (Fairclough)
Power through physical actions, violence, money, skills and goods
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Knowledge and Ideas Power (Fairclough)
Using knowledge and ideas to influence
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Position Power (Fairclough)
Power gained from your position - often in a hierarchy
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Personal Power (Fairclough)
Using power to influence people through personally nurturing or caring
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Politeness Principle
-make receiver feel good -don't impose -give options
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Robin Lakoff
said there were different trends to men v women spoken language and males were more dominant and women's speech reflected a 'inferior social status' which makes them sound needy, weak, indecisive and prevents them from being taken seriously
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Hedges
"such as", "sort of", "kind of" - punctuates speech with uncertanties
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Empty adjectives
"divine", "adorable", "gorgeous"
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Super-polite forms
"would you mind..." "...if its not too much trouble to ask" "is it o.k. if...?"
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Apologize more
"im sorry, but I think that..."
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Speak less frequently
Women speak less frequently than men
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Avoid coarse language or expletives
Women tend to swear less
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Tag questions
"You don't mind eating this...do you?" - subsequent research has cast some doubt on this proposition
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Hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation
use of prestige grammar and clear articulation
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Indirect requests
"Wow, I'm thirsty" - really asking for a drink
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Speak in italics
Use tone to emphasise certain words e.g. "so", "very", "quite"
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GOFFMAN
Face threatening act; the others do not respect the expectations concerning a persons public self image. Face saving act: other's respect this expectation
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BROWN AND LEVINSON
positive face; self image, the need to be accepted or to be considered a member of the group - insults Negative face; personal freedom - need to be independent and to have freedom - orders
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Repressive discourse strategy
indirect form of maintaining power relations, strengthens social ties and avoids threatening face ( a more indirect way of exercising power and control through conversational constraints)
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Oppressive discourse strategy
more open expression of power and control (linguistic behaviour that is open in its exercising of power and control)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Unequal encounter

Back

When one speaker holds more power than the other

Card 3

Front

Powerful participant

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Less Powerful Participant

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Constraints

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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