Poverty - Sociologists

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Developed absolute poverty in the 1890s
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Developed relative poverty and social exclusion
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Bradshaw 1990
Measure of absolute poverty - the 'budget standard measure'
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Mack and Lansley 1993
Consensual measure of relative poverty - list of essential requirements
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Lewis 1966
Dependency based explanations - study of poor people in mexico - people in a class stratified and highly individualistic society were more likely to develop a set of cultural values that trapped them in their poverty
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Underclass - people are lazy and make no effort to work or look after themselves
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Field 1989
Exclusion - three groups in society have been excluded from the rights that citizens should enjoy - long term unemployed, lone parent families, pensioners
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Marsland 1996
New Right - competing approaches - wealth is created by successful entrepreneurs
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Pryke 2000
Dismiss the relative definition of poverty - ideological attack on inequality
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Crosland 1956
Social Democrat approach - in any society there will be some groups who are in poverty
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Giddens 1999
Criticisms of Social Democrat approach - it has failed to respond to the changes which have occurred since the 1980s in the UK
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Glendinning and Millar 1992
Feminists - The welfare state has ignored women's plight
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Modwood 1997
The welfare state has been ineffective in combating the poverty of ethnic minorities
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Oliver 1996
Society stigmatizes disabled people by seeing them as less able - Assumptions about what is 'normal' is on the basis of able-bodied people
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Beveridge 1942
5 Giant Evils - Want, Ignorance, Disease, Idleness, Squalor
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Ginsberg 1998
The welfare state can be best understood in a more complex, two -sided way
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Esping - Andersen 1990
All capitalist welfare regimes can be divided into three main types : liberal, corporatist , and social democrat
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Hills 1998
Undertook a massive overview of the state of welfare services - education favoured middle class - health services favoured middle class - social security favoured working class
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Developed relative poverty and social exclusion

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Bradshaw 1990


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Mack and Lansley 1993


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Lewis 1966


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