Population Keywords

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  • Created by: Hayley
  • Created on: 22-04-14 21:41
Birth rate
A measure of an area's fertility. It is expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 people in 1 year.
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Death rate
The number of death's per 1,000 people per year.
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Life expectancy
The average number of years that a person can expect to live.
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Longevity
This is an increase in life expectancy over a period of time. It is a direct result of improved medical provisions and increased levels of economic development. People live longer and this creates an older population.
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Natural change
The change in size of a population caused by the relationship between birth and death rate. If birth rate exceeds death rate, a population will increase. If death rate exceeds birth rate, a population will decrease.
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Fertility
The number of live births per 1.000 women aged 15-49 in 1 year. It is also defined as the average number of children each women in a population will bear. If this number is 2.1 or higher, a population will replace itself.
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Infant mortality rate
The number of deaths of children under the age of 1 year expressed per 1,000 live births per year.
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Migration
A permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people.
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Forced Migration
The migrant has to migrate because of circumstances
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International migration
The UN defined international migration as the movement of people across national frontiers, for a minimum of 1 year.
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Net migration
The difference between the numbers of in-migrants and out-migrants in an area. When in-migrants exceed out-migrants, there is net migrational gain. When out-migrants exceed in-migrants, there is net migrational loss.
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Rural-urban and urban-rural migration
In less developed countries, the net migrational gain in urban areas, at the expense of rural areas, results in urbanisation. Iin more developed countries, movements from urban to rural areas have led to counter-urbanisation.
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Voluntary migration
The migrant makes the decision to migrate
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Emigrants
People who leave a country
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Immigrants
People who enter a country
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Population structure
The proportion of males to females in an area, usually in the form of age distribution
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Population density
The number of people in an area. The density of population is attained by dividing the total population of a country (or region) by the total area of that country (or region)
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Demographic change
A measurable shift in the characteristics of a geographically-defined population (e.g age, racial make up and family structure)
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Demographic transition model (DTM)
This is used to represent the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.
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Economic migration
Migrants move for economical reasons such as finding work- this does not include refugees.
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Refugee
Someone who is forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution or natural disaster.
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Asylum seeker
A person who has applied for protection as a refugee and has fled their country, out of fear, from race, religion, social group or political opinion problems.
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Dependency ratio
The ratio of those typically in the labour force (economically active) and those not (under 16's and over 65's). Usually expressed as a %
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Demographic ageing
Occurs when a realitively higher proportion of the population is made up of ageing/older people, with implications such as more need or pensions, healthcare and support
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Overpopulation
Excessive population of an area which can lead to overcrowding.
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Underpopulation
Not enough people living in an area or country to develop its economic potential fully. It can also be defined as having a lower population density than desired.
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Optimum population
A level of population for a region or country which is ecologically sustainable.
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Cencus
An official survey of a population, typically recording various details of each person.
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Population
The total number of people living in an area.
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Vital rates/ Population indicators
A set of statistics that are needed to calculate population.
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Doubling time
The time it takes for a population to double.
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Replacement level
The number of children needed per couple to maintain a population size. It is usually judged to be 2.1, to allow for deaths early in life.
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Population pyramids
A way of displaying the age/sex structure of a population. It can be analysed to predict future changes in population and can help to plan accordingly.
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Social migrants
People who move for the social opportunities or to be with family.
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Environmental migrants
People who move for a better environment or a better climate.
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Daily migrants
People who move frequently between places. These migrants are also know as commuters.
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Seasonal migrants
People who move depending on season.
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Semi-permanent migrants
People who move between countries for certain periods of time to benefit from both.
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Permanent migrants
People who move for a permanent time and do not move again.
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Internal migrants
People who move within a country.
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External migrants
People who move into and out of different countries.
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Push factors
In relation to migration, these are factors that encourage people to leave an area.
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Pull factors
In relation to migration, these are factors that attract people to go to a country.
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Social welfare
The well-being of communities.
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Zero growth rate
The population is neither increasing nor decreasing.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of death's per 1,000 people per year.

Back

Death rate

Card 3

Front

The average number of years that a person can expect to live.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This is an increase in life expectancy over a period of time. It is a direct result of improved medical provisions and increased levels of economic development. People live longer and this creates an older population.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The change in size of a population caused by the relationship between birth and death rate. If birth rate exceeds death rate, a population will increase. If death rate exceeds birth rate, a population will decrease.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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