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RAMBOMAN is the acronym used to demonstrate where non-random error can occur in epidemiological studies
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Blind Measurement
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Objective Measurement
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Don't need to know
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The ‘R’ question is: who was recruited into the study? AND is it possible to define a group of people or population that the participants represent and that the study findings can be applied to? 2 types; external validity error and selection error
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External Validity Error
occurs when they main object of a study is to measure the characteristics of a specified elligible pop. but the recruited participants are not representative of the Eligibles
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Selection Error
occurs when many/all of the participants who are allocated to the Exposure Group are recruited from a different source than the participants allocated to the Comparison Group. This is equivalent to the GATE frame having two separate or overlapping tr
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Allocation Error
The ‘A’ question is: were the study participants successfully allocated (± adjustment) to the Exposure Group (EG) and the Comparison Group (CG)? Ideally the exposure and comparison groups would have the same 'baseline' characteristics.
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Additional A Question
A also stands for ‘Adjusted’ analyses – The additional ‘A’ question: if there were differences in the characteristics of participants in EG and CG that could affect the study disease outcomes (i.e. confounders), were they adjusted for in the analyses
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Maintenance Error
The ‘M’ question is: were most of the participants maintained throughout the study in the groups (EG & CG) to which they were initially allocated?
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Blind or Objective Measurement
The ‘boM’ question is: were the people who measured the dis-ease outcomes unaware of (i.e. blind to) the participants’ exposure status or were these measurements made objectively (using measurement instruments that were not influenced by human factor
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Random Error
In epidemiological studies, random errors are errors that occur due to chance, rather than due to the way studies are designed and conducted. Most random errors can be reduced by increasing study size or the no. of times a factor is measured
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Random Sampling Error
Random sampling error is inherent in every study because, as discussed above, every study population can only be a sample of the total population of interest. While repeated 27 samples from the same total population will all be different
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Random Measurment/ assesment Error
The measurements of exposure  (and comparison ) status and of the dis-ease outcomes  are all subject to random measurement error. Our ability to measure biological factors in exactly the same way every time we measure them is often poor
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Random Allocation Error
the exposure  and comparison  groups in a randomised controlled trial may differ by chance alone, particularly if the trial is small; this type of random allocation error can also be reduced by undertaking a larger study
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The randomness inherent in biological phenomena
The inherent variability in all biological phenomena and therefore inherent variability in all measurements of biological phenomena (i.e. measuring factors in living organisms that by definition are always changing
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Which type of error can you estimate with confidence intervals
Random Error
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95% confidence intervals definition
‘there is about a 95% probability that the true value of EGO in the whole population from which the study participants were recruited, lies between these two values
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Exact definition of a 95% confidence interval
if the same study is repeated many times using random samples recruited from the same total population, then approximately 95% of the (95%) confidence intervals would include the true value in the total population
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What is a Confidence Interval
A Confidence Interval is a measure of the amount of random error when you have taken one sample from a population
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Statstical Significance
If the confidence intervals of EGO and CGO do not overlap then you can say that the results are statistically significant
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Participants, Exposure, Comparison, Outcomes, Time
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Blind Measurement


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