Population Genetics definitions

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  • Created by: LMoney
  • Created on: 22-05-14 14:37
Population
Randomly mating group of individuals of the same species
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Population (alternative def.)
Collection/sample from certain location
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Continuous variation
A trait influenced by the alleles of many genes (polygenic)- has normal distribution- often influenced by environment
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Gene
Physical entity transmitted from parent to offspring in reproduction- influences hereditary traits (codes for protein)
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Locus
Position of a gene or marker on a chromosome
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Mendel's law
Alleles of a gene segregate in formation of reproductive cells
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Hardy-Weinburg principle
Used to calculate expected genotypic frequencies in random mating in an ideal population
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Ideal Population
Diploid, sexual reproduction, non-overlapping generations, large populations, no natural selection
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Assortative mating
similar individuals mate more often than expected under random mating
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Disassortative mating
dissimilar individuals mate more often than expected under random mating
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Mutation
Origin of new genetic variants (alleles)- spontaneous heritable changes in genes- ultimate source of variation- weak force for changing allele frequencies
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Migration
Movement of individuals between populations- new alleles are introduced as a consequence
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Genetic Drift
Random undirected changes in allele frequencies that occur by chance in all populations, particularly small ones
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Fragmentation
Diversification among replicate populations from same original source
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Outcrossing
Opposite of inbreeding- introducing new genetic material into breeding line
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Expected heterozygosity
Probability that two randomly chosen gametes will be different- between 0 and 1
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Microsatellite marker
Repetitive DNA
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Founder effect
New population is founded by few individuals but this new population will have less variation than source population
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Bottlenecks (in populations)
Population size reduced dramatically
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Regular event bottlenecks
Seasonal variations in resources that results in deaths of many individuals
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Irregular random event bottle necks
Random events that kill large numbers of a population
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Metapopulation
group of spatially separated populations of same species which interact at some level
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Genetic effective population size (Ne)
size of a genetically ideal population which has same rate of loss of heterozygosity as an actual non-ideal, wild population
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Haplodiploidy
sex determining mechanism by which males develop from unfertilized egg
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Effect environment
Single genotype will not have same phenotype
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VP= VG + VG
Phenotype (VP) is the sum of the effect of genotype and the environment- so VP is total variance between phenotypes, VG is total variation due to genotype and VE is total variation due to environment
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Phenotypic plasticity
Ability of organism to change its phenotype in response to environmental changes
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Heritability
The contribution of genetic variation to phenotypic variation is between 0 and 1
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Heritability value is 0
All variation is due to environmental effect
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Heritability is 1
All variation is due to genetics
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Broad sense heritability (H^2)
VG/VP
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Narrow sense heritability (h^2)
VA/VP
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QTL
Quantitative Trait Loci- genes that together determine a complex character
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Balancing selection
A number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies above that of gene mutation- maintains variation in population
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Inbreeding depression
Recessive lethals become homozygous
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Collection/sample from certain location

Back

Population (alternative def.)

Card 3

Front

A trait influenced by the alleles of many genes (polygenic)- has normal distribution- often influenced by environment

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Physical entity transmitted from parent to offspring in reproduction- influences hereditary traits (codes for protein)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Position of a gene or marker on a chromosome

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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