Population Dynamics

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Where is an example of population increase?
Uganda
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Where is an example of population balance?
Poland
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Where is an example of population decrease?
Japan
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Name 5 factors that affect the birth rate and death rate.
1)culture/religion 2)Development 3)Policies of the government e.g WAN XI SHAO 4)Education about contraception 5)Status of women
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Name a factor that affects the death rate
Access to medicine/healthcare
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Where is an example of natural increase?
Niger. The fertility rate is at 7-8 children. Due to Islamic culture, there are many teenage marriages, thus women are likely to have more children. Men have multiple wives.
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Where is an example of natural decrease?
Russia. Low fertility rate at 1.2. The industrial disease triggers a low life expectancy. Therefore, there is lots of emigration of the child-bearing age group.
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Where is an example of an ageing population?
Japan. Average age is 44, birth rate below replacement level.
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What are the problems facing an ageing population?
Increase in cost of pensions, thus higher taxes. strains on healthcare
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Where is an example of a youthful population?
Mexico. Average age is 26. Birth rate is above replacement level. Increase in vaccinations, so a low infant mortality rate. TODAY'S CHILDREN ARE TOMORROW'S PARENTS.
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What are the problems facing a youthful population?
Increase in need for shcools. Could lower the average GDP. There is a higher competition for jobs, so people migrate to other countries, sometimes illegally e.g USA
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What does the slope of the pyramid indicate?
The death rate
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What does the width of the pyramid indicate?
The birth/fertility rate
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What does the height indicate?
The life expectancy
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What do kinks in the graph show?
Dramatic changes in birth rate or death rate in the past
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What does the area of the graph show?
The total population
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Causes of high birth rate
Lack of contraception, high fertility rate, lower survival rate/children for employment= more children.
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Causes of high death rate
undernourished, disease, bad health care, high infant mortality rate
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DTM: stage 1
high birth and death rate. low population increasing slowly. UK pre 1780
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DTM: stage 2
High birth and death rate but decreasing. Population growing at a faster rate. Burkina Faso
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DTM: stage 3
deacreasing birth rate, low death rate. Population still increasing but slowing down. China
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DTM: stage 4
Low birth an death rate. Population almost stable (high). USA
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DTM: stage 5
Shows a natural decrease
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Benefits of the USA visa policy (1990 immigration act)
Immigrants add more than $30 billion to the US economy. Foreign born workers can fill low paid unskilled jobs. Immigrants are more likely to start up businesses. 40% US PhD scientists were born abroad.
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Costs of the USA visa policy (1990 immigration act)
Health and welfare strained. They are often segregated in their own communities. Wages forced down as immigrants will often work for a lower wage
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A named anti-natalist policy
China One Child (WAN XI SHAO.) 1960s famine, birthrate was high, and unsustainable given its resources. Penalties imposed on those who had more than one child. financial rewards for those who only had one.
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The problems of this anti-natalist policy
China's rapidly growing economy might not have enough workers to keep it going. Couples prefer a boy so there is a gender imbalance, thus the birth rate will drop in the future.
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A named pro-natalist policy
Sweden. The fertility rate fell throughout the 1990s to 1.5. They offered paternal leave for 13 months at 80% income. An extra payment if children were born closer together. all-day child care, 120 paid days per child for sickness.
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Card 2

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Where is an example of population balance?

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Poland

Card 3

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Where is an example of population decrease?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Name 5 factors that affect the birth rate and death rate.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name a factor that affects the death rate

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