Population Change

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What is an exponential rate?
Where the population is growing faster and faster.
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Birth rate
The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year
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Death rate
the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year
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Explain how natural increase happens
the birth rate increases and the death rate decreases
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Explain how natural decrease occurs
The death rate will be higher than the birth rate
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migration
the movement of people from one area to another area
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how many stages are there in a DTM?
5 stages
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where would LEDC's and MEDC's come on a DTM?
LEDC's would be in the earlier stages and MEDC's would be in the later stages
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what is a population structure?
how many people there are of each age group in the population of a country and how many there are of each sex (male and female)
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how is a population structure shown?
population pyramid
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describe the characteristics of a country in stage one
birth rate is high because there is no education of contraception and also because many infants die. death rate is high due to poor sanitation and healthcare. population grown is at zero. the population structure would have a very low life expectancy
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describe the characteristics of a country in stage 2
birth rate is high due to no use of contraception and due to countries being agriculture based they send many children out to work. death rate falls die to improved healthcare. population growth is very high. population structure would have a
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describe the characteristics of a country in stage 2 (2)
increased life expectancy but still a majority younger population with less older people.
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stage 3 characteristics
BR rapidally falling due to women gaining more rights and equality. contraception usage increases. women go to work instead of having children. industry changes to manufacturing so less child workers. DR falls due to medical advances.
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stage 3 characteristics (2)
population growth is high. population structure would be that people are living to be older.
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stage 4 characteristics
BR is low due to urbanisation, wealth improves, less money for having children as they want more possessions. DR is low and fluctuating. Population growth is zero. Population structure would have a higher life expectancy - people are living longer
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stage 5 characteristics
BR is falling as less money for raising children. DR is low and fluctuating. population growth is negative. population structure would be that more older people then young people are present
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what are the 3 groups of impacts rapid population impacts on?
Economic, Social and Political
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Social impacts consist of...?
healthcare and education can't cope, therefore not everyone has access to them. food shortages. overcrowded settlements due to lack of housing. children have to work to support families therefore miss out on education
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Economic impacts consist of...?
there aren't enough jobs for everyone, therefore unemployment increases. increased poverty as babies are born into poor families and will therefore be poor too.
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Political impacts consist of...?
majority of population is young so they can focus on making relevant policies, like education and childcare. therefore this means less time spent on older people policies like pensions. may be crime as a result as people may not like what government
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how many strategies are there of trying to control rapid population growth?
2; Birth Control and Immigration laws
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what policy does china have?
One-child policy
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what do couple get if have one child?
given benefits like longer maternity leave, better housing, free education.
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what do couples get if they have more than one child?
they get no benefits and they are fined on part of they income.
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how has the policy changed over the years?
in some rural areas you are allowed second children only if the first was a girl or they were disabled. If one parent has a disability. if both parents were only children. this is so there are enough people to look after parents when they are old.
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how effective has this been. give numerical statistics.
prevented up to 400 million births. fertility rate had dropped from 5.7 to 1.8.
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where do ageing populations occur?
in richer countries
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who are the older population supported by?
the working population and they are dependent on them.
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economic issues?
working population pay tax for these older people so if there is more older people that means taxes increase. the economy of the country will grow more slowly. less money means that money will be spent that won't help the economy grow(building retire
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Social Issues?
healthcare services are put under more pressure. more people needed to be unpaid carers and workers will be more stressed and worried. people have fewer children as can't afford them. more old people = lower pension for all = work pop have 2 retire l8
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ways to deal with ageing population?
encourage larger families with cash rewards. Encouraging the immigration of young people. (however these are not sustainable ways of development) raising the retirement age. raising taxes. (these are sustainable ways of development)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year

Back

Birth rate

Card 3

Front

the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the birth rate increases and the death rate decreases

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The death rate will be higher than the birth rate

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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