Population Change

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 07-06-16 18:34
What is birth rate?
The number of births per 1000 of the population
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What is death rate?
The number of deaths per 1000 of the population
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What is natural increase?
Where birth rate is greater than death rate causing an increase in the population size
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What is natural decrease?
A decline in population growth due to the death rate being greater than the birth rate
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What does the DTM stand for?
Demographic Transition Model
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What does the DTM show?
How the birth rate, death rate and population growth go through stages over time
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Example of a country in Stage 1
Amazon Tribes
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Example of a country in Stage 2
Kenya
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Example of a country in Stage 3
India
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Example of a country in Stage 4
UK
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Example of a country in Stage 5
Germany
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Features of a country in Stage 1
High and fluctuating birth and death rates caused by poor healthcare, lack of contraception, need for child labour and disease
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Features of a country in Stage 2
High birth rate caused by lack of contraception and high infant mortality and a declining death rate due to improved healthcare and decrease in disease
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Features of a country in Stage 3
Declining birth rate due to access to contraception and low death rate
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Features of a country in Stage 4
Low birth rate and low death rate due to good access to healthcare, improved technology, access to contraception
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Features of a country in Stage 5
Lower birth rate than death rate, natural decrease. Ageing population.
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Social Problems with rapid population growth
Housing shortages. Services such as education can't cope, reducing the quality of education. Food shortages.
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Economic Problems with rapid population growth
Aren't enough jobs, reduced income. Increased poverty.
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Political Problems with rapid population growth
Cities and towns try to pay for public services
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Environmental Problems with rapid population growth
More pollution due to more people able to drive. More resources have to be used to provide energy and fuels for more people.
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What is overpopulation?
Too many people for the available resources.
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What does sustainable mean?
Meeting the needs of today without compromising the needs of future generations.
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Why was the one child policy introduced and when?
Introduced in 1979 over fears of future famine caused by overpopulation.
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What was the policy?
Couples could only have 1 child. They had to apply to marry and have a baby.
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What were the strategies?
Woman had to be 20 to marry, men 22. Couples had to apply to have a child. They could only have 1 successful pregnancy.
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What were the incentives?
Priority housing. Free education for the one child. Longer maternity leave.
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What were the sanctions?
10% salary decrease. Huge fines leaving many families bankrupt. Loss of all incentives on birth of second child.
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Was the policy successful?
Yes, prevented over 300 million births. Reduced the fertility rate from 5.7 to 1.8. No longer struggling to provide resources for the population.
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One Child Policy Problem
It ended on 01/01/16
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Was the policy sustainable?
No, the policy had to be adapted to reduce the problems. Only child couples could have two children. Couples in rural areas could have two children. If the first child was a girl, couple could have another baby.
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What were the problems caused by the one child policy?
Ageing population. Huge gender imbalance. 4-2-1 problem. Millions of orphans, in particularly girls.
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Give a non-birth control policy
Kerala, India
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What were the aims?
To reduce the birth rate by educating the population on the benefits of having a smaller family and improving the quality of life.
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What were the strategies?
Make women equal to men. Redistributed land. Provided adult literacy classes to raise the literacy rate. Provided free contraception. Improved vaccination programmes. Educated on family planning.
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Was it successful?
Yes, lowered birth rate and population growth but improved the quality of life. Now has one of the lowest birth rates in India and one of the highest literacy rates. Now women have more equal opportunities.
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Is it sustainable?
Yes because it did not cause any major problems, such as an ageing population and improved the quality of life.
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What is an ageing population?
Where there is a greater dependent elderly population than the working population caused by a fall in the death rate. Generally a country in stage 5 of the DTM has an ageing population.
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What are the problems of an ageing population?
Pension crisis, have to raise retirement age. Strain on healthcare and other services. Slow economy growth.
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What are the benefits of an ageing population?
Young retired people contribute to the leisure industry. Elderly can look after grandchildren, allowing parents to work, increasing the economy. Many do charity work.
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Example of a country with an ageing population in the EU.
France
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What was France's pro-natal policy?
Encouraged three child families.
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What were the strategies?
Three years paid parental leave taken by mother or father. Free schooling and day care. Reduced train fares. More children, earlier a woman can retire.
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Did it work?
Yes raised the birth rate to one of the highest in Europe.
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What is migration?
Movement of people within or to a country.
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What is immigration?
Moving into a country
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What is emigration?
Moving out of a country.
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What are the benefits to the donor country of emigration?
Reduces overpopulation and strains on services and resources. Unemployment reduced.
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What are the negatives to the donor country of emigration?
Brain-drain, skilled workers generally leave. Ageing population as the young leave. Holes in labour market.
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What are the benefits to the host country of emigration?
Holes in labour market filled. More tax payers. Increased labour force.
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What are the negatives to the host country of emigration?
Strain on resources and services. Competition for jobs. Conflict of culture.
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Impacts of Poland to UK migration for Poland.
Population fell. Reduced strain on services. Allies created. Brain-drain. Ageing population.
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Impacts of Poland to UK migration for the UK.
Housing shortage. More tax payers. Overpopulation. Strain on services. Larger labour force. Boosted the economy.
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What is exponential growth?
Growth that increases faster and faster.
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Push factors for migration
War. Disease. Famine. Lack of Jobs. Inequality between genders. Poor education. Poor healthcare.
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Pull factors of migration.
Job opportunities. Healthcare. Family. Friends. Education. Climate. Higher standard of living and quality of life.
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Afghan to EU migration, why?
Conflict and war in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries has led many people to leave seeking a better quality of life.
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Where do they aim to go?
Many people travel to Calais, to the "Jungle" with the aim of getting to the UK.
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Afghan to EU - Migration type
Refugees/ Asylum seekers.
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What happened in 2009?
100's of refugees in the "Jungle" were arrested for trying to illegally cross the channel to the UK. Subsequently the camp was bulldozed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is death rate?

Back

The number of deaths per 1000 of the population

Card 3

Front

What is natural increase?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is natural decrease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the DTM stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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