Population and the Environment Definitions

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Population Distribution
Pattern of where people live.
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Population Density
Population of an area divided by the size of that area.
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Neolithic Revolution
Around 12,000 years ago, people in western Asia and eastern China developed agriculture.
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Industrial Revolution
Between 1760 to 1850, there was a rapid rise in the use of machinery and factories in MEDCs.
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Agricultural Productivity
Measure of the amount of food that is produced in an area.
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Arable Farming
Farms can grow plants.
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Livestock Farming
Farms can raise animals.
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Mixed Farming
Farms can grow plants and raise animals.
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Commercial Farming
Production of crops or livestock to make a profit.
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Subsistence Farming
Just enough food is grown to feed the family.
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Intensive Farming
As much as possible is produced from the land.
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Capital-Intensive Farming
Has a high input of capital, and a low input of labour for the area of land.
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Labour-Intensive Farming
Does not involve much capital but uses a lot of labour.
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Extensive Farming
Opposite to intensive farming. It has low capital and labour input for the area of land , so produces less food than intensive farming.
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Nomadic Farming
Farmers more from place to place to grow crops or graze animals on different land.
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Polar Climates
Found above 66 latitude in the northern and southern hemispheres, and experience the coldest temperatures on the planet and have little precipitation.
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Arid Climates
Classes as deserts due to being very dry and receiving usually less than 250mm of rainfall per year.
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Zonal Soils
Mature soils that have developed from the interaction between climate, vegetation and parent rock across a significant period of time.
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Leaching
Water moves minerals and nutrients down through the soil profile.
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Podzols
Are acidic and occur in cool temperate climates in the northern hemisphere, where there is more precipitation than evapotranspiration.
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Latosols
Are deep and red, and are found under tropical rainforests.
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Soil Erosion
Wearing away of soil by wind or water.
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Crop Rotation
Farmers plant cover crops in fields which are bare after a main crop has been harvested, which helps to maintain the soil until a main crop is sown again.
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Windbreaks
Hedges or trees can be planted around the fields as barriers against wind erosion.
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Terracing
Steps can be cut into a steep hillside to slow down the movement of water down the slope.
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Contour Ploughing
Ploughing across the slope instead of downslope, stopping rainwater from flowing downhill as quickly.
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Mulching
Covering the soil with a layer of plant material protects the soil from wind and rain, and slows down runoff.
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Waterlogging
When spaces between soil particles fill with water.
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Salinisation
Build-up of salts in the soil.
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Structural Deterioration
When the pore spaces in the soil are lost.
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Food Security
Having reliable access to affordable, nutritious food.
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Food Availability
A country must produce and/or import a sufficient amount of food.
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Food Access
People must be able to regularly obtain food.
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Food Quality and Use
The food that people consume must be nutritious enough for them to maintain a healthy lifestyle, and must be stored and prepared in a way that is safe and hygienic.
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Health
Physical, mental and social well-being, and the absence of disease.
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Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE)
Number of years a newborn child can expect to live in full health without major disease.
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Morbidity
Rate of disease in a population
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Prevalence
Total number of cases in a population at a particular time.
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Incidence
Number of new cases in a population during a particular time period.
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Mortality Rate
Number of deaths in a population over a period of time.
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Epidemiological Transition Model
States that the main cause of mortality changes from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases over time.
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Disease/Transmission Vectors
Living organisms that can pass diseases between people.
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Hepatitis A
Liver disease which leads to fever and nausea.
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Cholera
Bacterial infection that causes diarrhoea and dehydration.
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World Bank
Provide loans to LEDCs for health programmes
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UNICEF
Helps mothers and children access food, clean water and vaccinations.
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Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
Are often charities who promote global health research and provide a significant proportion of the health care available in LEDCs.
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Malaria
Infectious disease caused by parasites, which are transmitted by mosquitoes.
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Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
Disease where a build-up of fatty substances in the arteries means the heart does not receive enough blood.
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Birth Rate
Number of live births per 1000 people, per year.
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Death Rate
Number of deaths per 1000 people, per year.
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Total Fertility Rate
Average number of children a woman will have when she is of reproductive age (15-45).
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Infant Mortality Rate
Number of children (out of every 1000 born alive) who die before their first birthday.
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Dependency Ratio
Proportion of the population that has to be supported by the working population (15-64).
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Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
Shows how the population of a country changes over time through five stages.
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Population Structure
Number or % of males and females in different age groups within a population shown by population pyramids.
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Demographic Dividend
Potential for rapid economic growth in a country as its dependency ratio falls.
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International Migrants
People who move from one country to another.
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Refugees
People who have been forced to flee their country, and are unable to return, because of persecution, conflict or changes to the environment.
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Asylum Seekers
People who have fled their country, but have not yet had their application to be recognised as a refugee accepted.
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Economic Migrants
People who have moved to another country to work.
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Push Factors
Negative factors that make people want to leave their home country.
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Pull Factors
Positive factors that attract people to a new place (host country).
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Population Growth Dynamics
Study of how and why population sizes and structures change over time.
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Optimum Population
Ideal number of people in an area
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Overpopulation
Population of an area is too high for the available resources.
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Underpopulation
Population declines or is too low and there are too few people to use the available resources.
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Carrying Capacity
Largest population that an area is capable of supporting in the long term.
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Ecological Footprint
Measures the environmental impact of human activities, by calculating the amount of productive land required to produce the goods and services that are being used.
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Population, Resources and Pollution Model (PRP)
Shows the relationship between people and the environment.
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Positive Feedback
When a change leads to processes that amplify the original change.
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Negative Feedback
When a change leads to processes that have an opposite effect to the original change.
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Malthus' Theory
States that populations can grow exponentially, whereas food supply can only increase arithmetically.
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Neo-Malthusians
State that rapid population growth is an obstacle to development and should be slowed down.
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Boserup's Theory
States that however big the world's population grew, people would always produce sufficient food to meet their needs.
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Simon's Theory
States that population increase is a positive for humanity as the world will produce enough intelligent people to solve problems that arise.
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Ozone (O3)
Gas found in the upper atmosphere which forms a layer that absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun.
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Skin Cancer
UV rays case genetic mutations in skin that has been exposed to the sun.
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Cataracts
Lens of the eye gradually becomes cloudy, causing blurred vision.
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Replacement Rate
The fertility rate at which there is no population change.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Population of an area divided by the size of that area.

Back

Population Density

Card 3

Front

Around 12,000 years ago, people in western Asia and eastern China developed agriculture.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Between 1760 to 1850, there was a rapid rise in the use of machinery and factories in MEDCs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Measure of the amount of food that is produced in an area.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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