Population

Preventative rather than...
Curative
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What does 'crude' mean?
TOTAL popn (is not age or gender specific)
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What is the Echo Effect a result of?
A historical fertility rate
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What stands in the way of fall fertility rates?
Tradition & culture
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How many children does the average Sub-Saharan women have?
8/9 (to ensure 95% of surviving adult son)
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Why are children in HIC an economic burden?
High education & food costs
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Which religions oppose birth control?
Roman Catholic Church & Islam
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Give 2 examples of misleading CDR
Ageing population & natural disasters
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What does IMR show (as an indicator)?
Development / socio-economic progress. Reflects improvements in nutrition, water supply & HC
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What is the IMR in Sierra Leone?
163/1000
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How many people are living with AIDS?
+40mn
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What is the Epidemiological Transition?
the change in the IMPACT & TYPES of diseases of a country. Paired with popn development
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Diseases in LICS
Infectious/Parasitic
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Diseases in HICS
Non-communicable
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Which countries have the highest DR in LICS? (20/1000(
Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone
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What are people more willing to control?
Death rates
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Apex shows...
Life expectancy
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Base shows...
Birth rate & infant mortality rate
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Sides show...
Death rate
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Buldges & dips show...
baby booms, migration patterns, natural disasters & war
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What is the relationship between dependency & quality of life?
The higher the dependency ration, the lower the quality of life
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What is the natural imbalance of males to females at birth?
1:05 : 1
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When does natural imbalance even out (1:1)
Middle age
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By 85+ by how much do women outnumber men?
3:1
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Why are there more female than men in HICs?
More men die in accidents, murder rates are higher for men, biological make-up makes them more susceptible to heart disease
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Why are there more men than females in LICs?
Less likely to get medical attention, labour, hard labourers (collecting firewood & exposed to toxic flames cooking)
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Stage 1
High Fluctuation
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Stage 2
Early Expanding
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Stage 3
Late Expanding
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Stage 4
Low Fluctuation
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Stage 5
Natural Decrease
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What does the DTM show?
Population change through time & how BR & DR affect population growth
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What is % of world popn inc in LICs?
95%
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What is % of world popn in HICs?
5%
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How much is the total popn rising each year?
90 mn
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What is the demographic dividend?
Economic & social growth, which leads to a reduction in TFR
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A youthful age structure has a...
High rate of population increase
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Why is it difficult to bring about significant reductions in population growth?
Large no. of people within fertility age cohort
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High dependency ratio
Great pressure on working population to provide for 'dependents'
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How much of the world population are 65+
8%
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How many people are 65+ in Europe?
17%
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How many people are 65+ in Africa?
4%
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What is the oldest nation?
Japan - median age 45 - 22.5%
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Migrants in the UK
India, Pakistan & Poland
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What is the UK popn growth rate?
Slow - 0.7%
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Overall TFR in UK
1.96
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UK indigenous TFR
1.84
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UK migrant TFR
2.5
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Why is the TFR falling?
Career over children, marriage less popular & urbanised society (high food & hc costs)
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What is the percentage of Britons working to pay the pensions of 20% who are retired?
60%
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Pension Crisis
Not enough money to cover the increasing pension demands of a population
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2 main ageing population management strategies
Promote fertility & maintain an economically balanced population
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What does SPA stand for?
State Pension Age
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Standard of living
Economics
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Quality of life
Wealth (social & environmental factors)
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What effect does high number resources have on a population?
High levels of development
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Resource
Any part of the environment that can be used to meet human needs
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What countries prove that there are factors other than wealth & development that affect population?
Brazil & China
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If low levels of economic growth are not related to rates of population growth? What is the cause of low levels of development?
Political instability & lack of investment
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When is a child's greatest risk of dying?
First 28 days?
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What is the name given to a child's first 28 days?
Neonatal Period
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What is the most important reward of economic & social develop?
Falling morality & increasing LE
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What is the LE global average?
70 years
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Why do some argue that there will always be a technological solution to problems?
Brainpower & human labour
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Sustainable Development
Only use resources & the environment in ways that ensure they will still be there for future generations
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3 factors of Consumption Triangle
Resources, Population Growth & Economic Develop
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Food Security
enough food available within a country to feed all the people in that country
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Malnutrition
vitamins
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Undernutrition
calories
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Food availability
Sufficient quantities of food are available at all times
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Food access
People have enough money/land to obtain food for a nutritious diet
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Food use
People know what constitutes a good diet & have the means to prepare & cook their food to provide themselves with this diet
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How many Sub-Saharan deaths are there anually as a result of food shortages?
4 mn
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What illnesses can malnutrition cause?
kwashikor, anemia, beriberi, scurvy & rickets
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Why are the malnourished hit the hardest?
Malaria, HIV/AIDS & tuberculosis are prevalent amongst the hungry - weak.
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What are the consequences of food shortages?
Undernourishment, vicious circles, famine & aid dependency
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What does the Green Revolution coincide with?
World popn explosion
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Green Revolution two main immediate benefits
More efficient & produce greater quantities
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As a result of the GR, how much did the no. of poor people fall?
1975 - 1,15bn --> 1995 - 825mn (despite 60% population inc)
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Name for wheat & rice
Monoculture
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By how much did cereal & calorie availability per person increase?
30%
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Non-renewable resources
Fuel & non-fuel
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Renewable resources
Critical & non-critical
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What is the total productive area of the planet?
13.6bn hectares
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Countries with highest ecological footprint
Kuwait, Qatar, Dubai, Denmark & Belgium
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Countries with lowest ecological footprint
Bangladesh, Pakistan ^ Afghanistan
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Malthus
Pessimistic
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Boserup
Optimistic
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Geometrically
1, 2, 4, 8, 16
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Arithmetically
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
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Why did Malthus' predictions not come true?
1) agricultural revolution 2) discovery & opening up of trade 3) emigration
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Which model is regarded as the most influential?
The Club of Rome (1972)
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If present day trends continue, in how many years will the limit of growth on our planet be reached?
100 years
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The GR produced seeds that could inc yield by up to?
8 times
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does 'crude' mean?

Back

TOTAL popn (is not age or gender specific)

Card 3

Front

What is the Echo Effect a result of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What stands in the way of fall fertility rates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many children does the average Sub-Saharan women have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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