Population

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  • Created by: JH1010
  • Created on: 26-10-15 17:23
What is natural increase?
When the birth rate is higher than the death rate
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What is natural decrease?
When the death rate is higher than the birth rate?
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What is the DTM?
The Demographic Transition Model represents the changes in birth rate, death rate and the population as a country develops over time.
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Describe Stage 1 of the DTM
Birth Rate is high and fluctuating. Death Rate is high and fluctuating. Population growth is 0. Population is low and steady. Example populations are tribes in Brazil.
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Describe Stage 2 of the DTM
Birth Rate is slowly falling. Death Rate is rapidly falling. Population growth is very high. Population is rapidly increasing. Example country is Gambia.
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Describe Stage 3 of the DTM
Birth Rate is rapidly falling. Death Rate is slowly falling. Population growth is high. Population is increasing. Example country is Egypt.
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Describe Stage 4 of the DTM
Birth rate is low and fluctuating. Death Rate is high and fluctuating. Population growth is 0. Population is high and steady. Example country is UK or USA.
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Describe Stage 5 of the DTM
Birth rate is slowly falling. Death Rate is low and steady. Population growth is negative. Population is slowly decreasing. Example country is Japan.
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What does a population structure show?
The number of people of each age and sex in a population.
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What 4 things should you look out for on a population structure?
Life expectancy, balance of the sexes, birth rate,, bulges/dips
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What is the dependency ratio?
The number of people 0-15 + the number of people 65+, divided by the number of people 16-64.
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6 reasons for changes in the birth and death rate
Contraception, health care, increased status of women, manufacturing, medical advances, less money available
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What causes overpopulation?
Rapid population growth
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Social impacts of overpopulation
Strain on services, children are working not being educated, overcrowded settlements, food shortages
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Economic impacts of overpopulation
unemployment increases, increased poverty
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Environmental impacts of overpopulation
increased waste and pollution, more resources used up
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Strategies for overpopulation
Birth control programmes: laws, family planning, free contraception. Immigration laws: limit number of people of child-bearing age
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What is an ageing population?
More older people than younger people in a population
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Social impacts of an ageing population
Strain on health care, more unpaid carers, fewer children, lower pension, higher retirement age
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Economic impacts of an ageing population
increased taxes, slow growth of economy
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Strategies for ageing population
Cash rewards for women who have more children, encouraging immigration of people of working age to lower dependency ratio, raising retirement age, raising taxes
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2 types of migrants
Refugees: forced out of their country because of war, persecution or natural disaster. Economic migrant: voluntarily move from poorer to richer regions in search of job or higher wages
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Push factors
The negatives about a location that makes someone want to leave. Examples: low wages, shortage of jobs, war, poor healthcare
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Pull factors
The positives about a location that makes someone want to move their. Examples: higher wages, better standard of living, free to worship who they choose, cleaner environment
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Impacts on origin country
Advantages: Less pressure on services as fewer people, money is often sent back to the origin. Disadvantages: Labour shortage, skill shortage, older people left behind - increases dependency ratio
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Impacts on destination country
Advantages: bigger labour force, migrants pay taxes. Disadvantages: increased demand on services, money sent back to origin, tension and conflict between locals and migrants as they compete for the same jobs
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Strategies to control immigration
Points based system - choose best migrants, migrants need certain number of points to get into the country. Limits and targets - controls the number of migrants. Control illegal immigration - deporting them and prosecuting people who house them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When the death rate is higher than the birth rate?

Back

What is natural decrease?

Card 3

Front

The Demographic Transition Model represents the changes in birth rate, death rate and the population as a country develops over time.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Birth Rate is high and fluctuating. Death Rate is high and fluctuating. Population growth is 0. Population is low and steady. Example populations are tribes in Brazil.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Birth Rate is slowly falling. Death Rate is rapidly falling. Population growth is very high. Population is rapidly increasing. Example country is Gambia.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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