Polysaccharides

  • Created by: Aleena
  • Created on: 23-10-18 20:50
Polysaccharides?
long chains of monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds
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Uses for Starch
Plant Storage
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What is Starch made of?
Mix of Amylose & Amylopectin, it is made of a chain of alpha glucose monomers
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Properties of Starch
Its insoluble & forms starch granules inside many plant cells.Being insoluble means starch doesn't change the water potential of cells, so doesn't cause the cells to take up water by osmosis
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Amylose
Poly-(1-4) glucose, straight chain.in fact chain is floppy & it tends to coil up into a helix
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Amylopectin
Poly-(1-4) glucose, with 4% (1-6) branches-gives it a more molecular structure than amylose-as it has more ends-it can be broken down quicker too
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testing for starch?
Pottasium Iodide Solution goes from orange-brown to blue-black if starch is present
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Glycogen
is a Poly-(1-4)-Glucose with 9% (1-6) branches, animal storage polysaccharide-found mainly in muscle & liver
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Why can glycogen be mobilised (broken down) very quickly into glucose?
it's highly branched-so more ends
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Cellulose
only found in plants-main component of cell wall, its Poly (1-4) glucose but contains the beta glucose isomer
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Why does Cellulose form straight chains?
For the beta glucose molecules to line up with the -OH groups on the same side, one of the molecules must be flipped 180* (upside down)
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Why is Cellulose so strong?
The chains are very straight and are v.close to each other so can form hydrogen bonds with each other.
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Can this Beta-Glycosidic bond in Cellulose be broken down by amylase?
no-to break it down you need a specific cellulase enzyme-only bacteria have these enzymes;so herbivores have mutualistic bacteria in guts so they can digest cellulose.Humans can't digest cellulose-we call it fibre
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Uses for Starch

Back

Plant Storage

Card 3

Front

What is Starch made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Properties of Starch

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Amylose

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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