Pollution

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What are particulates?
Tiny pieces of solids and tiny droplets of liquids floating in the air.
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Where are more particulates found?
In urban areas, rather than urban areas. The concentration of particulates in urban areas is 10 to 40 microgram per cubic metre, compared to 10 in rural areas.
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What health problems can particulates exacberate?
Asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer and heart disease.
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Other than particulates, what other problems does pollution cause?
Photochemical smog.
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Which cities is photochemical smog a major problem in?
LA, Beijing, Mexico City and Barcelona. It's more common in places with hot and sunny climates because there's more sunlight. These locations have temperature inversion, keeping pollutants at ground level.
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What pollutants cause photochemical smog?
Nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and hydrocarbons, which come from burning fossil fuels, such as in vehicles and factories.
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What occured in Beijing in February 2011?
A smog which led the Beijing Environmental Bureau to state that air quality in most of the city was at level five - the worst rating.
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How many cars are on the road in Beijing each day?
4.8 million.
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What took place in Beijing in the run up to the 2008 Olympics?
Certain industries were temporarily closed and the amount of traffic in the city was severely limited.
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Where, in the UK, had groundwater been polluted? What was the response?
The O2 site in Greenwich, now the Millenium Dome. Deep depths of soil had to be dug out before the new development could take place.
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Where, in the China, had groundwater been polluted? What was the response?
In Wuhan, 2,400 apartments were constructed on the site of a former chemical plan. The constuction was almost finished when it was discovered metals causing lung and heart problems was in the ground below. Plastic sheets were put underneath.
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How much waste does Cairo produce daily?
10,000 tonnes.
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How much of Delhi is linked to the sewerage system?
55% of Dehli's 15 million popualtion.
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How can water become polluted?
Through surface leaks, run-off off rubber, oil and metals, untreated or poorly treated sewage, and even treated sewage can still be high in nitrates.
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How much of Delhi's urban waste ends up in India's rivers?
80%
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What issues are India and China facing?
Rapid popualtion growth along with rapid urbanisation.
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What has the UN warned of in India?
Severe water shortages.
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What can be found in Bangkok?
A Skytrain Transit System, built in 1999, which runs north to south and east to west in the city.
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What is so good about the Skytrain Transit System?
It is very cheap - 70 p each day compared to £3 for the bus, along with it only taking 10 minutes to commute anywhere. This shows even deevloping countries can find solutions.
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What is the issue with the Skytrain Transit System?
The long flights of steps up to the stations has been cited as the main reason why elderly and disabled would-be patrons are still taking the bus. However the situation has recently improved as escalators have been installed.
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What has been the criticism of the Kyoto Protocol?
The 2 largest polluters, China and the USA, did not sign the agreement.
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What is Agenda 21?
This was set up in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit. It recognised that sustainability needed to be carried out on a local, as well as national scale.
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What is the Brown Agenda?
This is focused on making world cities more sustainable?
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What took place in Mumbai in August 2005?
Floods caused $700 million in damage and killed 400 people.
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What is beind destroyed in Mumbai? What is the issue here?
Mangroves - 40% have been lost in the past 15 years. These are meant to protect the city from coastal flooding.
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How much open space is there in Mumbai per person?
0.03 acres.
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Give two features of Curutiba's Green Swap programme?
Stryfoam is shredded to stuff quilts for the poor and the plants employ recovering alcholics and homeless people thus giving them a chnace to improve their lives. This contributes towards economic sustainabilty.
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What TNC's operate in Curutiba?
Toyota, Bosch and Volvo.
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By 2000, how many new jobs had been created in Curutiba?
50,000 direct jobs and 150,000 indirect jobs, in a city of 1.8 million people.
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How is Curutiba socially sustainable towards children?
There are 50 'lighthouses of knowledge', located in accessible areas and provide book and Internet access, particualrly for children. There are 40 'special' centres feeding the 'street children'.
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In Curutiba, what has the Environmental Cleanup Programme allowed?
90% to have access to clean water and sewage systems.
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How many trees have been planted in Curutiba?
1.5 million, along with 26 parks being set up.
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What is the green area per person in Curutiba?
54 square metres - the highest in Brazil.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are more particulates found?

Back

In urban areas, rather than urban areas. The concentration of particulates in urban areas is 10 to 40 microgram per cubic metre, compared to 10 in rural areas.

Card 3

Front

What health problems can particulates exacberate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Other than particulates, what other problems does pollution cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which cities is photochemical smog a major problem in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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