Politics: Pressure groups - key terms in a tweet

Punchy definitions of important pressure groups key words that are concise enough to fit in a 140 character tweet! #goodluck!

Pressure group
A group that promotes a need/interest in society that seeks to influence government policy and public opinion
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Think tank
A pressure group with a main purpose of policy formulation/development who then try get policy-makers to support it who have more power.
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Civil society
Independent institutions that operate outside the control of government and the state, eg businesses, families, charities, pressure groups
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Social movement
A large amount of people with a common goal and commitment to their cause, but weak in organization
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Sectional group
Represents a section of society and protects/advances their own interests, eg trade unions-> workers, business groups-> business owners
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Functional representation
Feature of a sectional group in that membership is restricted to a particular occupation/career, eg British Medical Association--> doctors
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Peak group
A large 'umbrella-like' pressure group which oversees the organization of smaller groups with the same shared interest eg CBI, TUC
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Promotional Group
Groups which promote causes and are united because of shared ideas/values/attitudes rather than shared interests
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Non-governmental organization
Not-for-profit group with international membership and acts globally in international politics, eg Red Cross, Greenpeace
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Insider group
A pressure group with access to the political decision making process, through consultations with government and presence on committees.
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High-profile insider groups
Groups which gain influence both through government consultation and through the media/public opinion campaigns
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Low-profile insider groups
Focus on gaining influence just through connections with government and like to stay out of the public eye eg Howard League for Penal Reform
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Prisoner groups
Heavily dependent on government for funding or may have even been created by government, so their goals are limited, hence 'prisoner'
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Quango (Quasi-autonomous non governmental organization)
a type of prisoner group; a public body that is staffed by appointees rather than ministers/civil servants eg National Consumer Council
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Outsider group
Group that doesn't have special links with government, either by choice or because the government doesn't want to affiliate with them
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Potential insider group
A group which currently has outsider status but is working towards, or close to being, and insider group. eg Countryside Alliance
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Necessity outsider group
A group which just doesn't have the political expertise, knowledge, skills or contacts to be an insider group
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Ideological outsiders
Groups whose aims are just too 'out there' radical to be compatible with government. Influences instead by mass activism. eg Stop the War
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Grassroots movement
Idea of pressure group activity being natural/spontaneous rather than artificial and carried out through traditional political structures
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Chequebook group
Where membership is fee based rather than being open to all who are keen for that cause eg National Trust
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Expert authority
Where people's views are respected because they are an expert in that field rather than because they are in authority.
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Policy networks
Links and contacts made between government and non-government bodies (incl pressure groups) by which policy is developed.
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Parliamentary lobbying
Attempts to influence government officials/MPs by writing to them, gathering in the halls of Parliament, emailing etc
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'Opinion formers'
Often targeted by pressure groups, those in society who shape public opinion, for example, media, quality newspapers, magazines
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Direct action
Political action which seeks attention by causing disruption to the running of the country, eg sit-ins in Starbucks over corporation tax
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Civil disobedience
Low level/justified law breaking with the aim of making a political or moral point eg Brian Haw's 5 year anti-war vigil outside Parliament
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Elitism
Idea that political power is concentrated in the hands of the elite few and with pressure groups, only the wealthy/already powerful succeed
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Pluralism
Idea that political power is widely spread and a variety of views exist in society; pressure groups promote healthy debate between them
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Cyberactivism
Pressure group activism which makes use of new technologies to promote their message, eg youtube viral campaigns, e-petitions
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Globalization
Process of international integration across all fields; business, culture, ideas and worldviews, enhancing the work of pressure groups.
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Corporatism
Incorporating economic groups into government processes, and the relationship with government, business and labour.
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Tyranny of the minority
Where the views of small minority groups in society are over-represented in pressure groups and become more important than the benefit of society as a whole
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Non-legitimate power
The non-democratic nature of pressure groups in that some get influence in government but there is no democratic process in deciding who.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A pressure group with a main purpose of policy formulation/development who then try get policy-makers to support it who have more power.

Back

Think tank

Card 3

Front

Independent institutions that operate outside the control of government and the state, eg businesses, families, charities, pressure groups

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A large amount of people with a common goal and commitment to their cause, but weak in organization

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Represents a section of society and protects/advances their own interests, eg trade unions-> workers, business groups-> business owners

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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