Politics and the Economy in the 1920s- PHASES

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What were the events of Phase 1?
•proclamation of the Republic- November 1918 •Ebert-Groener Pact •suppression of the two Spartacist uprisings (Jan & March 1919) •successful liquidation of the Kapp Putsch (March 1920)
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Who was the hero of Phase 1?
Ebert: •saddler's son 'rose to lead' the SDP •Pact with Groeener •became associated with brutality to crush the Spartacist & Bavaria uprising •had to contend with shame of War & humiliation •"without democracy there is no freedom"
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Give a summary of Seeckt as a hero of Phase 2?
•Prussian general & military aristocrat •strong national & patriotic tendencies •allegiance to the monarchic principle •sorted Republic's internal fortunes •guardian of the Reich (suppressed Communist risings & adopted ambivalent attitude to Munich Putsch
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Give a summary of Rathenau as a hero of Phase 2?
•Jewish •intellectual & patriotic proclivities •head of rich & profitable AEG •proud of permitted association with the Kaiser and his court •conducted Republic's external affairs •Treaty of Rapollo- diplomatic coup
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How is January-August 1923 related to Phase 2?
French occupation of the Ruhr→ Passive Resistance → Hyperinflation→ Stresemann because chancellor
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How were 'Stresemann, America and the treaties' involved with Phase 3 from 1922 to 1924?
•1922- American Secretary of State (Mr Hughes) made plan to solve Reparations problem •1923- British government asked American government to support Mr Hughes' informal proposal- they agreed •1924 August- Dawes Plan
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What did the adoption of the Dawes Plan lead to?
•Viability of mark was reestablished •reestablished American confidence in Europe •rehabilitated Germany •economic condition of Germany progressed rapidly
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How were 'Stresemann, America and the treaties' involved with Phase 3 from 1925 to 1930?
•1925 October- Locarno Treaties conclusion •1928 August- Kellogg-Briand Pact •1929- Young Plan •1930- evacuation of the Second and Third Zone
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What did the Locarno Treaties lead to?
Germany was ultimately admitted to the League of Nations and to a permanent seat on its council.
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What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
•An agreement between 62 countries to renounce war as method of resolving "disputes or conflicts" •It was signed by Germany, France & the United States on August 27 1928
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What did the Young Plan achieve?
•committee headed by Owen Young •reduced reparations to 112 billion Gold Marks •Germany had to pay about $157 million (1/3 of sum) annually, only paid other 2/3 of sum if could afford to in a way that would'nt harm economic development
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How was the 'Young Plan' involved with Phase 4?
•'condemned' Germany to pay reparations for another 60 years •Communists joined with Nationalists to attack government for accepting the plan •Right and Left plotted to bring down ..........................
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Who was the hero (or non-hero) of Phase 4?
•Heinrich Bruning •March 1930- appointed chancellor • May 1932- dismissed as chancellor & replaced by Von Papen
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How was 'Fear' involved with Phase 4?
•Wall Street Crash→ economic depression •fear spread of a second depression, with horrors of inflation •National Assembly lacked youth •Von Shleicher (betrayed many) began search for a new Chancellor
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Give a brief summary of Bruning:
•devout Catholic •romantic/paladin •clever •1915-injured at war •returned to war at end as Lieutenant •received Iron Cross •regretted disappearance of Monarchy •conservative & Monarchist at heart •1929= leader of Centre Party
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How did Bruning become Chancellor?
•Von Schleicher tried to persuade him to be Chancellor •Von Schleicher arranged for him to be received by the Marshall (talked of war days & politics, Marshall expressed disgust & disappointment & cried & begged Bruning to not "desert" him) •eventually, w
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Card 2

Front

Who was the hero of Phase 1?

Back

Ebert: •saddler's son 'rose to lead' the SDP •Pact with Groeener •became associated with brutality to crush the Spartacist & Bavaria uprising •had to contend with shame of War & humiliation •"without democracy there is no freedom"

Card 3

Front

Give a summary of Seeckt as a hero of Phase 2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give a summary of Rathenau as a hero of Phase 2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is January-August 1923 related to Phase 2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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