Politics - Devolution and the Local Government

What is devolution?
Where power is distributed to national institutions. Therefore transfers certain political power from the centra; government to regional governments.
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How is the UK quasi-federal?
Parliament holds full sovereignty however it has devolved powers.
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How did devolution come about in the UK?
In 1997 Labour won and promised devolved powers. In Wales&Scotland 2 ref's were held for independence. Both voted yes and the legislation was passed=Scotland Act and Wales Act 1998. In 1998 NI also gained devolved powers.
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What is asymmetrical devolution?
Devolution took place in different forms in 1998. Different powers devolved to the 3 regional bodies.
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What is primary legislation?
A form of law containing statues that set out broad outlines and principles delegating authority to an executive branch. Determined by UK parliament.
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What is secondary legislation?
A form of law specifying substantive regulations, and procedural regulations for implementing them. Laws made using specific powers given by a piece of primary legislation.
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What is financial devolution?
The ability of devolved government to raise its own taxes, rather than rely upon grants from Parliament.
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What were the powers devolved to Scotland?
Primary, Secondary and Financial
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What were the powers devolved to NI?
Primary, Secondary
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What were the powers devolved to Wales?
Just secondary
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Examples of devolved matters
Education and training, home affairs, local government, transport etc.
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Give some examples of Scottish and Welsh laws that are different to those in England
Scotland- Alcohol Minimum Pricing Act 2012 and Police&Fire Reform Act 2013 (merged 8 services into one single agency). Wales- Human Transplantation Act 2013 (People are automatically placed on the organ donor list but can be taken off).
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How has devolution impacted pressure groups?
Pressure groups now have a broader range of access points to focus their lobbying efforts on.
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What concerns have been raised in the West Lothian Question
Questions whether its fair that Scottish, Welsh&NI MP's can vote on the issues only affecting England, when English MP's cannot vote on many issues that have been devolved. Suggesting the need for England Parliament.
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How have some Scottish and Welsh laws gone on to impact the English?
2005 Scottish introduced the Smoking, Health&Social Care Act to ban smoking in enclosed public spaces=2006 Health Act. 2001 Wales established Children's Commissioner to promote kids rights&welfare=2004 Children Act.
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Has devolution 'killed nationalism stone dead'?
People believed devolution would eradicate peoples desire to be independent, but this is not the case. EG- Scotland Act 2012 devolved additional powers to alter rates of income tax. 2014 Scottish Independence Ref. 2006 Government of Wales Act.
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Why does Parliament have so much power over local government?
Without a codified constitution, Parliament can determine how much devolved power and money granted to other bodies within the UK. Parliament can change,merge&abolish local govts, can control the range of services, determines money available.
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What is the difference between unitary and two tier authorities?
Unitary Authorities - Responsible for all local services for a particular area. Two tier Authorities - Responsibilities are divided between county council and district council.
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Why did Thatchers govt want to reform local government?
Wanted to shrink cost and size of the state, and this included the local government. Introduced the Compulsory Competitive Tendering which required councils to allow private companies to compete on price to win contracts to provide services.
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How has the central governments influence grown over funding of local government?
Council Tax account to 22% of revenue and they are capped by Parliament. Tax on Business Property accounts for 17% of revenue and the tax is set by Parliament. Grants from Parliament are determined by them and account for 61% of revenue.
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How has the coalition government strengthened and weakened local government?
Localism Act 2011=gave local authorities the power to do anything that individuals generally do. BUT Academies Act 2010=Academies&free schools are funded by the state but independent from local authorities.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How is the UK quasi-federal?


Parliament holds full sovereignty however it has devolved powers.

Card 3


How did devolution come about in the UK?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is asymmetrical devolution?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is primary legislation?


Preview of the front of card 5
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