What is a political party?
An organised group of people joined together by s aimular set of beliefs. They adopt a programme of policy commitments which they seek ti implement by winning elections and forming government
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How are political parties simular to pressure groups?
Both represnt things, both campagin, both have a leader
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In what way are political parties and pressure groups different?
Pressure groups don't normally have that many purposes, political parties can form a government
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What are the five functions of political parties?
Formulating policy, providing government, representation, participation, recruiting office holders
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What is representation?
Parties represent the veiws of various people depending on their position on the political spectrum
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What is participation?
Parties need to politically participate to help them get their message across
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Example of when a party diselected a candidate?
Conservative MP for Northampton stood down in April 2017 when it became likely he would be diselected by June following a scandal over missing public money in a loan to the local football club
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What is formulating policy?
Parties have to translate heir core ideas about how society should change in a manifesto
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How can parties remove a prime minister?
Through a leadership contest.
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When has a party removed a prime minister? (Example)
Margaret Thatcher whose leadership of the Conservative party was challenged by Michael Heseltine, she evntually withdrew and was replaced by John Major
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What do left wind parties desire?
Significant change/reform to the way society operates. Wish to remove, heavily regulate free-market capitalism
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What is capitalism?
An economic system where private companies operate and make profits
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What do right wing parties desire?
Opposd to large scale change, they stress the importance of social order, stability, tradition, authority and priviate property. Support capitalism
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Describe the communist party (political spectrum)
Far left, supports social equality, does not support capitalism
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Describe the green party (political spectrum)
Left wing, believes in social justice, environmentalism and non-violance
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Describe the labour party (political spectrum)
Centre left, majority of votes in the north, members often middle class and younger
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Describe the libdems (political spectrum)
Centre, want to create a free, fair and open society, aim to disperse power
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Describe the conservatives (poliical spectrum)
Centre right, prefer privatisation over nationalisation, support capitalism, members are usually older and upper/ midle class. Majority of members in the south
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Describe the UKIPs (politial spectrum)
Right wing, strong emphasis on lowering immigration
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Describe BMPs (political spectrum)
Value tradition, far right, believe in economic freedom, believe in freedom to suceed over equality
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What was labours income in 2015?
£51 million
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What was conservatives income in 2015?
£41.9 million
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What was Lib Dems income in 2015?
£7.9 million
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Why is labour and conservatives income much higher than other parties?
They get lots of money from bussinesses as they are more likely to win meaning that its easier for companies to lobby and therefore put policys into legislation
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What is paid for out of general taxation (political parties)?
Cost of running office, cost of living in Wesminister and the constituency, travel costs
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What isnt paid out of general taxation?
Election costs
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How do parties pay for their election costs?
Through volentary subscriptions of their membership and from funraising evens in MPs constituencies
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What is short money?
Special state provision to support the activities of the opposition in parliament
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Why is the issue of party funding controversial?
Suspicion that powerful people offer financial support in return for political influence.
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Example of party funding being controversial?
Labour is traditionally funded by trade unions which have had a major part in shaping policies
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Where have the main parties traditionally got their funding?
Labour traditionally got funding from trade unions, but during 1994-2000 was replaced slightly by successful inderviduals
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What did the political parties, elections and referendums act (2000) do?
Supervises spending on election campagins, amount of money you could spend was capped at £30,000 per consttuence. Donations of more than £5000 had to be declared
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What types of reforms are there for party funding?
Have a commission (election), have a neutral body that picks, state funding for political parties, put cap on how much income a party is allowed
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Why is it hard to change the way party funding works?
Its for personal gain, big companies and rich like it because they are able to shape politics and the big two like it because the system benefits them in a big way
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Aguments FOR state funding of political parties
Parties play a role in representitive democracy to deserve funding, could narrow the funding gap between parties, if state matched donations by party members it might encourage political participation, reduce corrupting influence from the rich
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Arguments AGAINST state funding for political parties
Parties will no longer be inderpendant, hard to decide how much support a party needs before it deserves state funding, public funding may make parties less dependant on pleasing the voters, taxpayers should not have to compulsorily contibute
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What did Aristocratic grouping come in defence of?
The historic privilages of the corwn and the church of england as powerful land owning institution
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Describe traditional conservatism
A party dedicated to the defence of property, stressed the importance of established institutions
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Describe one nation conservatism
Designed to strengthen national unity and bridge the gulf between classes through paternalistic social policy, balances an attatchment to free enterprise with state intervention in economic and social policy
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When did one nation conservatism peak? Why?
Peaked after WW2 when conservatives broadly accepted the changes introdued by labour administation
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When was Thatcher leader of the conservative party?
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What did thatcherism and the new right comrpise?
Control of public spending (tax cuts) to stimulate economic growth, privitation of industries, legal limits of power of trade unions, increased police and judicial powers
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What happened to conservatives in the post thatcher era?
Stuggled for a decade and a half after, aging membership and outdated policies
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What did cameron bring to conservative in the post thatcher era?
Cameron bought fresh thinking of a new generation and appealed to voters. he was seen as a liberal conservative
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Where does conservative stand now?
On the side of ordinary people rather than just the well off elite
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Evidence of resembling one nation conservatism in economics
David Cameron had no budget cuts for health, scools and aid
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Evidence of resembling thatcherism in economics
David cameron (Budget cuts by 25% of white hall departments
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Evidence of resembling one nation conservatism with welfare
David cameron cut costs and valued NHS... May to build fixed term council houses.. May £8billion increase to NHS budget
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Evidence resembling thatcherism with welfare
david cameron didnt want low income groups to rely on benefits (he wanted them to be reliant)... May to sell coucil houses after 10 years
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Evidence resembling one nation conservatism with Law and Order
Cameron had more understanding of youg offenders and offered help within prisons for rehabiliatation
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Evidence resembling thatcherism with law and order
May to reduce net immigration to tens of thousands. & spend at least 2% of National income on defence
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Evidence resmbling one nation conservatism for forign policy
David cameron was remain for EU Ref 2016
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Evidence resmbling thatcherism for forign policy
Cameron was tough on EU, pro USA and supported air strikes against islamic state.
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When was labour founded and by who?
founded in 1900 by socialist societies and trade unions
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What did 'old labour' want?
To get more working class MPs into parliament so they could improve living conditions for the working class
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When did labour first take office and under who?
First took office in 1924 under PM Ramsey Macdonald
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When was the first labour majority government and under who?
1945, Clemment Atlee
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What did clemment atlee do & emphasise?
Nationalisation of coal, railways, power, and steel. Emphasised the importance of a fairer society
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Who and why didnt people like new labour?
Many traditional societies felt a betrayal of heritage. They felt Blair was too close to bussiness leaders and enthusiastic about market values
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Key features of new labour?
Empahsis on wealth creation rather than redistrubution (intoduced minimum wage), people need to beware of their responsibility to community as well as their rights, willing to curb civil liberties to stop crime and terrrosim
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What did the financial crisis and recession lead to under brown?
Led to a shift in policy (treasury pumped money into banking system , government nationalised vunrable banks, no raise in tax, maintained public spending
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What did Milliband pledge to do in 2015?
In 2015 Milliband pedged to reduce defecit every year of the next parliament
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When was corbyns victory?
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What are the features of the Corbyn era?
Favoured nationalisation, opposed to benefit cuts and tutition fees. Favour withdrawal from NATO, Opposed to hard line 'new' labour policies to combat terroism
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Evidance of departing from 'New labour' ECONOMICS
Corbyn- nationalisation of railways, countering discrimination in work place, favoured restoration of 50% income tax
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Evidence of departing from 'new labour' WELFARE
Corbyn- opposed benefit cuts and private sector. wants whoely state run NHS, opposed tution fees
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Evidence of departing from 'new labour' LAW AND ORDER
Corbyn- opposed to hard line policies such as increased powers to combat terroism
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Evidence of departing from 'new labour' FORIGN POLICY
Favoured withdrawal of UK from NATO and abolishment of trident nuclear weapons
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Evidence on continuing new labour policies LAW AND ORDER
Corbyn - opposed government cuts to police numbers
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How are political parties simular to pressure groups?


Both represnt things, both campagin, both have a leader

Card 3


In what way are political parties and pressure groups different?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the five functions of political parties?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is representation?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Great flashcards, but the spelling needs a teeny bit of improvement

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