Political Parties Flashcards

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Compassionate Conservative?
A tem popularised by Bush during his 2000 campaign to refer to a strand of Conservatism which took a more compassionate view on issues such as welfare, education, immigration and poverty.
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The solid south?
A term used to refer to the Democratic party's solid political and electoral control of the south during the Civil War and the 1960's.
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Party decline?
The theory that political parties were in decline in terms of membership, functions and importance, both in elections and in congress.
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Split ticket-voting?
Voting for candidates of two different parties for different offices in the same election.
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Party renewal?
The theory which suggests that parties are increasing in importance in elections, fundraising and congress.
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Contract with America?
The Republican Party policy document that was behind the party’s campaign to win control of the House of Representatives in the 1994 mid-terms.
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What did the Contract with America do?
Made by Newt Gingrich, it laid out ten policies that Republicans promised to bring to a vote on the House floor during the first 100 days of the new Congress if they won the election - which they did.
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Policies included in Contract with America?
The policies included a balanced budget constitutional amendment, anti-crime legislation, welfare reform and congressional term limits.
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Organisation of two major parties?
US political parties are decentralised. There is some organisation but it does not amount to much. US political parties are traditionally state based.
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Chairperson of the Democrats?
Debbie Wasserman Schultz
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Chairperson of the Republican National Committee?
Reince Priebus.
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Structure of the parties, from bottom to top?
Party activists, ward committees, state and local committees, congressional committees, national committees, chair.
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What is a chair?
Each party has a chair who chairs the meetings of the national committee. R’s - Reince Priebus, D’s - Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Strategies to recruit.
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What is a national committee?
Each party has a national committee elected by the previous national party convention, the Republican National Committee, and the Democratic National Committee.
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What is the Republican National Party responsible for?
RNC - provides national leadership for the R party, responsible for developing/promoting R party platform, coordinating fundraising. Sharon Day is the co-chairman.
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What are congressional committees?
each party has a series of committees in the House and the senate. Each committee has a separate chairperson. For example the House and Senate Budget Committee. Do most of the legislative work - determine which bills get reviewed and shape laws.
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What are state and local committees?
State party committees have federal and non-federal accounts and money can be transferred between the two. In most states, legislative committees are operated by political parties to raise funds and campaign foe election.
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Limit to state party committees?
The federal limit for contributions is a combined total of $10k.
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What did Arizona democrat committee do?
Arizona Democrat Committee ensured all districts are heard.
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Ward Committees?
There are around 180k precincts and voting districts. They are normally organised by a chairperson/captain.Discuss local things that affect the area - put forward their views. Each state has one to localise politics to the state.
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What do ward committees do?
Orders election. levies taxes, authorises public improvements, approves contracts and adapts traffic regulations.
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An example of a ward committee?
For example Los Angeles City Council District One - Housing.
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Party activist?
State and local parties are dominated by party activists who can be grouped together as ‘issue activists’ or ‘candidate activists’.
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Example of party activists?
The tea party movement is an American political activist movement known for its Conservative positions and its role in the R party. The Tea Party’s most high profile victory was the defeat of Eric Cantor. Sarah Palin supports this action committee.
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What was the New Deal Coalition?
Prior to the depression, the Democrats support was from the solid south. White supporters in southern states rejected Republicans due to the civil war and they supported slavery. Also immigrants were mainly based in Northern cities.
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What was New Deal F.D Roosevelt in 1930's?
The Democratic party widened its support to new groups including blue collar workers who benefitted from the benefits of the new deal program, including the protection it introduced to trade unions and ethnic groups, who benefitted from increasing jo
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D spending on welfare?
Democrats believe on higher spending national wide regarding welfare. Support universal healthcare; strong support of government involvement in healthcare, including Medicare and Medicaid. For example, Obama’s Health Care Reform will benefit everyone
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R spending on welfare?
For the Republican Party, religious charities play an important role in welfare.  Therefore, to promote such organizations the party supports their exemption from taxes and non-tax deductible donations to these organizations.
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Bush's welfare policy?
In keeping with the Republican Party’s view toward welfare, President Bush promoted the work of neighborhood and faith-based charities and introduced the Office of Faith-based and Community Initiatives, which coordinates local and state efforts with
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Bush's other welfare policy going against R ideology?
However Bush also introduced the ‘No Child Left Behind’ policy which was a welfare policy from federal government, going against the Republican ideology.
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D economic philosophy?
Progressive (high income earners should be taxed at a higher rate). Generally not opposed to raising taxes to fund government.
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D economic policy example?
For example, the economic policy of the Barack Obama administration is a combination of tax increases on the wealthiest Americans and investment in myriad of public services to boost the American economy and future prospects.
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R economic philosophy?
low government spending and minimal involvement.  In its most basic level, the party believes that the government’s role should be kept as low as possible, allowing the private sector and individual citizens to shape the state. Favor a "flat tax"
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R economic philosophy example?
four pillars of Reagan's economic policy were to reduce the growth of government spending, reduce the federal income tax and capital gains tax, reduce government regulation, and tighten the money supply in order to reduce inflation. Reaganomics.
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D philosophy on size of fed gov?
Believe federal gov should have more involvement and power. Eg Obama's 2015 budget includes investments and initiatives to improve all levels of education. It invests in infrastructure, job training, pre-school and pro-work tax cuts.
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R philoopshy on size of fed gov?
Republicans believe that federal government should be limited and more should be left to individuals and individual states. They wish to see the tax system simplified and the gov spending reduced.
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R v D regarding government spending?
Republicans tried to cut $61 billion from the budget. Democrats, however, proposed cuts that amounted to only 1/6 of that.
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D regarding gay rights?
The Democratic view on gay marriage is that all couples should be treated equally under the law. A motion to repeal the ‘Defense of Marriage Act’, titled the Respect of Marriage Act, was introduced by Democratic congressmen in September of 2009.
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R view on gay rights?
Republicans headed the enactment of the Defense of Marriage Act, a 1996 law granting states the right to not recognize same-sex marriages that were granted under the laws of other states
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D view on rights to an abortion?
Support abortion. For example, in 2013 President Barack Obama vowed to join Planned Parenthood in fighting against what he said are efforts by states to turn women's health back to the 1950s, before the Supreme Court legalized abortion nationwide.
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R rights to abortion?
The Republican party are very much ‘pro-life’. North Dakota Republican Gov. Jack Dalrymple signed a law that bans abortions as early as six weeks, or when a foetal heartbeat is detected, making the state the most restrictive in the nation.
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D view on death penalty?
While support for the death penalty is strong among Democrats, opponents of the death penalty are a substantial fraction of the Democratic base. Martin O’Malley, the 51-year-old governor of Maryland capped a long campaign to eradicate death pen.
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Obama view on death penalty?
defended capital punishment for “heinous” crimes, although he voted as a state legislator not to expand its reach in less severe cases
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R view on death penalty?
A large majority of Republicans support the death penalty. For example, Bush said “I don’t think you should support the death penalty to seek revenge. I don’t think that’s right. I think the reason to support the death penalty is because saves others
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However point for R view on death penalty?
Sam Brownback In a speech on the Senate Judiciary Committee, he questioned the current use of the death penalty as potentially incongruent with the notion of a "culture of life", and suggested it be employed in a more limited fashion.
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D view on gun control?
Want to tighten restrictions. The Democrats managed to pass into law the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act in 1993, and an Assault Weapons Ban in 1994.
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R view on gun control?
Are pro right to bear arms. In Oaklahoma, a law has been passed to allow certain people to carry guns in schools. Senator Susan Collins (Maine) is one of a very few Senate Republicans to support a recent proposal to expand background checks for gun.
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R opposition on gun control?
Senator Susan Collins (Maine) is one of a very few Senate Republicans to support a recent proposal to expand background checks for gun buyers.
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D view on immigration?
Pro immigration, i.e. tried to enact the DREAM act.
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R view on immigration?
The Republican party believes that a system needs to be in place to ensure that immigrants who enter the country illegally are not provided with the same benefits that legal citizens are.
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R policy on immigration?
The Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) program is an online system designed to help benefit-issuing agencies, institutions, and licensing agencies determine the immigration status of applicants.
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Joint view on immigration?
50% of Republicans say they see a need for immigration reform this year, with 53% of Democrats saying the same.
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D view on defence spending?
Since Vietnam, the Democratic Party has had a reputation for being weak on national security issues, so Democrats timidly assent to demands for more spending lest they find themselves criticised.
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D policy on defence spending?
The U.S. Democratic Party’s 2012 policy platform signals it would welcome additional Pentagon spending reductions, and targets for cuts “outdated Cold War-era systems” such as nuclear weapons.
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R view on defence spending?
Since Republicans are happy to reign in any spending other than military spending, they have a vice grip on the military voting block.
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R policy on defence spending?
For example, President Bush's defense budget request of $481.4 billion pushed U.S. defense spending to levels not seen since the Reagan-era buildup of the 1980s.
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What was the K street project?
The K Street Project attempted to increase the number of conservative PACS and lobbyists in Washington.
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Was K street project successful?
In 2006, the K Street Project was effectively forced to shut down due to public outcry; the following year, an ethics reform law made such outfits illegal. But in its heyday, it helped create an unprecedented revolving door .
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What is a 50/50 nation?
In the 2000 presidential election both parties ended up with about 49% of the vote and the EC divided 271-267.
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What are traditional red voters?
Traditional Red voters tend to be mostly male, overwhelmingly white and in certain areas increasingly hispanic. It was very protestant and recently has been joined by many Catholics.
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Traditional blue voters?
Blue America was more female than male and still had an array of people such as blacks, hispanics, whites and Asians. Churchgoing was not that important in Blue America. It was less wealthy, predominantly urban and very liberal.
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Purple America?
in 2008 nine states that had voted for Bush, voted for Obama, including Indiana that won by 21%. Also West Virginia is a Red state, but both its senators are Blue.
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Longest serving independent?
Sanders, however he is now running for president under D party.
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Last independent president?
Whig Party with Millard Fillmore in 1853.
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When was last electoral college votes for independents?
1968 (George Wallis).
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Texas R vote rate?
57% in 113th congress.
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Third party significant role?
Ross Perot's balanced budget proposal in 1992. Also Nader's environmental policy took votes away from Gore in 1996.
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Third parties in US?
Green party, Constitution Party, Reform Party (Ross Perot), Libertarian Party,
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How many EC seats did George wallis win?
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Perot electoral college votes?
13% of vote but no college votes.
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What is matching funds?
Third parties are disadvantaged by the way they qualify for ‘matching funds’ in presidential elections. Major party candidates qualify by raising at least $5000 in contributions of $250 or less in at least 20 states.
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Problems with matching funds?
Also as many third parties are temporary parties, they only contest one election, as John Anderson did. This rule explains why Perot did not qualify for the ‘matching funds’ when he was attracting one fifth of the votes, but the Reform Party did.
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Ballot access laws?
Laws in each state regulate how third party candidates can qualify to get their name on the ballot. In Tennessee it requires just 25 signatures on a petition, leading to 7 independent candidates for the senate in 2012.
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Harder ballot access states?
Other states such as New York are more difficult, as a third party candidate must gain a certain number of signatures in every county in the state. In California the number of signatures required is equivalent to 1% of electorate in the state.
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Lack of media coverage?
News programmes do not think them sufficiently news-worthy. Their candidates are usually barred from appearing in televised debates, for example in 2000, only Bush and Gore appeared in tree presidential debates. Nader was excluded.
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Lack of resources?
It is hard for third parties to qualify for ‘matching funds’. They must spend much of their hard earned money on ballot access petitions rather than on real campaigning.
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Lack of suitable candidates?
When trying to attract a suitable running mate, Anderson had to settle for a former governor of Wisconsin Patrick Lucey. In 1992, Perot had to settle for James Stockdale. In 1996 it was equally odd Orson swindle. They were all no hopers.
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Allegations of Extremism?
The two major parties often portray third parties as extremists. Many of them are, as they are not under the umbrella of Republican or Democrat. Republicans likened pro-segregation George Wallace to Hitler.
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f a third party does well on election day, as Wallace did in 1986 and Perot in 1992, the party then has the problem that the main parties adopt their key policies. This happened to Perot Clinton and the congressional Republicans adopted policies.
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Reform party vote fall?
By 2000 the federal budget was in surplus and the Reform Party’s votes had fallen from 19% in 1992, to 0.4% in 2000. Political scientists call this co-optation.
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Nader taking votes from al Gore?
Nader in 2000 also influenced the election outcome as his green policies took votes away from Democrat Al Gore (whose policies were similar to Nader), a situation that some felt contributed to the victory of Republican George W. Bush .
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


The solid south?


A term used to refer to the Democratic party's solid political and electoral control of the south during the Civil War and the 1960's.

Card 3


Party decline?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Split ticket-voting?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Party renewal?


Preview of the front of card 5
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