Politeness Strategies Terms

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Politeness Markers
Words or phrases that express concern for others and serve to minimise threats to face.
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Face
A speaker’s self esteem
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Positive Face
Our need to maintain self-esteem. Positive is threatened when we are criticised in anyway
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Negative Face
Our desire to avoid doing something we don’t want to do, such as giving money to a stranger
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Bald on-record
Where a speaker is completely blunt and direct e.g ‘Get out!’
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Positive Politeness
An informal approach that assumes the other party will agree e.g ‘I think that just about wraps it up, don't you?, often includes jokes and tag questions
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Negative Politeness
A more indirect, hedged approached, often using negative constructions e.g ‘You couldnt take the bin out for me, could you?’
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Off-record
Where no threat is made to someones face e.g ‘ anyway…’
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Locutionary act
Saying something and meaning it
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Illocutionary act
Saying something, but implying or suggesting something else
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perlocutionary act
When an action or effect is brought on by our speech,
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Quantity Maxim
Make your contribution as information and not too informative as is required (for the purpose of exchange).
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Quality Maxim
Do not say what you believe to be false. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence or knowledge.
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Relation Maxim
Be relevant to the context of the conversation
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Manner Maxim
Avoid obscurity of expression, avoid ambiguity and be orderly.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A speaker’s self esteem

Back

Face

Card 3

Front

Our need to maintain self-esteem. Positive is threatened when we are criticised in anyway

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Our desire to avoid doing something we don’t want to do, such as giving money to a stranger

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where a speaker is completely blunt and direct e.g ‘Get out!’

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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